The teacher institution is a place where a pre-service teacher is trained to become a professional teacher in the teaching profession. It is obvious that the way per-service teachers are produced this days call for questions as many of them cannot construct a simple sentence, face audience, teach effectively, source for instructional material,  use instructional material effectively and defend their discipline. All this problem arises when students are force to what they are not prepared for, poor infrastructural facilities, lack of micro-teaching exercise and laboratory, lack of teaching practice orientation, to mention but a few. This is giving all well meaning Nigeria a great deal of concern as this stagnancy in the per-service that will be produced has effect on both students and pupils’ academic performance. This research work is aimed at exploring factors affecting mathematics teaching effectiveness among pre-service primary mathematics students –teachers. Two hundred respondents were used in this research work consisting of primary school pupils in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The data collected, was analyzed using simple percentage and Chi-square statically tool. One of the finding revealed that mathematics anxiety in pre-service teachers have significant effect on pupils’ academic performance.  However, adequate recommendations were made in this research work that could be used as a guide for future studies.



CONTENT                                                                           PAGES

Title page                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgements                                                         iv-vi

Abstract                                                                           vii-viii

Table of contents                                                             ix-xii


1.0   Background to the Study                                         1-7

1.1   Statement of the Problem                                                7-8

1.2   Purpose of the Study                                                       8

1.3   Research Questions                                                 9

1.4   Research Hypothesis                                                       9

1.5   Significance of the Study                                         10

1.6   Scope of the Study                                                   11



2.0   Introduction                                                             12-13

2.1   Mathematics and Concept Development in Primary Schools                                                       13-16

2.2   The Importance of Mathematics                               16-19

2.3   The Teacher Education in Nigeria                            20-23

2.4   The Goals of Teacher Education in Nigeria              23-27

2.5   Teaching Practice Exercise in Nigeria                      27-29

2.6   Pre-Service Teacher Preparation for Teaching Practice                                                                    29-40

2.7   Challenges Facing Pre-Service Teacher during Teaching Practice                                         40-44

2.8   Using Micro-Teaching to Prepare Pre-Service Teachers for Teaching Practice                                45-48

2.9   Some Techniques of Effective Teaching of Mathematics in Primary Schools                             48-64


2.10   Illustrative Examples on the Teaching of Some Specific Mathematics Topics in Primary School       64-70

2.11 Conditions for Learning Mathematics Concept in Senior Secondary School                                             70-72


3.0   Introduction                                                             73

3.1   Research Design                                                      74

3.2   Population of the Study                                           74

3.3   Sample and Sampling Technique                            74-75

3.4   Instrumentation of the Study                                   75

3.5   Validity of the Instrument                                                75

3.6   Reliability of the Instrument                                    75

3.7   Administration of the Research Instrument             76

3.8   Method of Data Analysis                                          77


4.0   Introduction                                                             78


4.1   Description of Demographic Data                            78-79

4.2   Testing of Hypothesis                                               80-90

4.3   Discussion of Findings                                            91


5.1   Summary                                                                         92-93

5.2   Conclusion                                                              93

5.3   Recommendation                                                     94-95

REFERENCES                                                                 96-99

Appendix         A                                                                      100-103

Appendix B                                                                      104-105

Appendix C                                                                      106-107

Appendix D                                                                      108-109

Appendix E                                                                      110-111

Appendix F                                                                      112



1.0     Background to the Study

According to Williams (2010), a pre-service teacher is a student who has not        yet completed training to be a teacher. Adegoke (2000) noted that teacher         education is central to both quality of education and development, hence the    diverse interest in the philosophy, goals, content structure, quality control,       certification of the pre-service and in-service training of teachers. In Nigeria,        teacher education is the statutory function of pre-service and in-service          training institutions like Colleges of Education, Facilities of Education,       Institutes of Education, National Teachers Institutes and Schools of Education     in Polytechnics. The common nomenclatures for certification include NCE     (Nigeria Certificate in Education), B.Ed or BA/B.Sc and the PGDE       (Postgraduate Diploma in Education)

Cockcroft (2002) opined that the concern about teachers’ mathematics knowledge is nothing new. Williams (2010) review of mathematics teaching in early years setting and primary schools identified a direct connection    between low levels of primary teachers’ subject knowledge and poor mathematical results in primary schools and recommended the appointment of a mathematics specialist to each primary school. Developing teachers’ mathematical subject knowledge was acknowledge was acknowledged as being too big a task for providers of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) to do in the limited time available to them. The revised teacher’s standards by ITE (2012) which now apply to all teachers and trainee teachers are clear in their expectation that trainee teachers will have strong subject knowledge. It is asserted that this subject knowledge should be good and secured.

Olamide (2006) suggest that subject knowledge alone is not sufficient to produce effective primary mathematics teachers. Goulding (2003) study suggested that formal qualifications in mathematics are poor predictor of pedagogical effectiveness.

Ball and Forzani (2010) opined that subject knowledge alone even going well beyond common understanding is not sufficient to be a teacher being a accomplished in a specific domain does not automatically include the capacity to break that domain into core components of someone who does not yet have that skill or understanding. The knowledge of how to beak a subject down into component that are understandable for a novice learner is not what would be expected of the general public and is different from simple mathematical competence. Possibly more problematic than identifying and classifying such knowledge is ensuring that all trainee teachers leave their period of Initial Teacher Education (ITE) equipped with the require knowledge and understanding.
Ball and Forzani (2010) have begun to explore the significant moments in trainee teachers’ development of this knowledge during a period of Initial Teacher Education suggesting that there are certain task that contribute significantly to the development of this knowledge. An additional and significant issue is the diversity of mathematics backgrounds and experiences which trainee teachers bring to their training.

Brown, McNamara, Hanley and Jones (2009) suggest that 80% of the pre-service teachers in their study had overwhelmingly negative experiences of mathematics at school.
Fiore (2009) research revealed that how difficult or even traumatic experiences of learning mathematics can have significant negative effect in one till adulthood. He studies pre-service teachers feeling about mathematics and how it can be taught. Bellock, Gunderson, Ramierez and Levine (2010) suggest that mathematically, anxious teachers can unwrittenly pass their anxiety on to their pupils. According to Ashcraft (2002), there is considerable evidence that anxiety about mathematics disrupts cognition and is associated with avoiding mathematics classes. Bibby (2002) revealed that these experiences cannot be divorces from and are highly likely to influence the process of becoming a primary mathematics teacher.

Gresham (2008) suggests that there is a significant and negative correlation between trainees, level of anxiety about mathematics and their pedagogical efficacy.

Alongside teachers who have had negative or even traumatic experiences as mathematics learners are those who have been successful mathematics and who see themselves such. According to Goode (2013), these trainees may also presents challenges for educational institutions as they are likely to have learned mathematics in a particular way, which they may be reluctant to re-consider or change. Adewale (2012) research suggests that confident and mathematically able pre-service teachers may not give sufficient attention to planning and may well be resistant to teaching approaches that are not the same as those they experienced. Salmon, Givvin, Stipek, and MacGyvers (2001) research revealed that trainee teachers beliefs are highly resistant to change.
Rowland and Martyn (2000) cite examples of a number of trainee teacher who score very well on an audit of their mathematics subject knowledge, but whose classroom performance was rated as. Given this variety of prior experiences, the expectations of trainees’ subject knowledge acquisition and limited time available becomes challenging. Nkwo (2012) suggested that educational institutions should design programmes for trainees embarked on their own journey towards becoming primary mathematics teachers.
According to Adetunji (2003), the primary school is a very crucial and sensitive period in the life of the child. Children at this level are entering the concrete operational stage of Piaget, a stage at which children could learn concepts of systematically, methodically and appropriately presented. At this stage, children are introduced to the basics of education. For pupils to enjoy learning mathematics at this level, there is need to make pre-service teachers and in-service teachers more equipped with the content of presentation.
Salmon (2005) considered poor method of teaching mathematics at the primary school level as one of the major factors contributing to pupils performance in the subject. Thus there is need for pre-service teacher to acquire deep knowledge of the content of the mathematics so as been able to pass same to the pupils and develop in them a good foundation. Okolo (2006) affirmed that teachers instructional strategies especially at the foundation level of teaching and learning is a vital aspect of the nation’s productive independence. Adeyinka (2009) opined that competency in the teaching methods skills and techniques are all needed for effective curriculum development.

It is necessary for teachers to adopt methods that allow for interaction, inquiry, independent discoveries which is necessary for the problem solving mathematics.
This research work is aimed at exploring factors affecting mathematics teaching effectiveness among pre-service mathematics students–teachers.

1.1     Statement of the Problem

Most pre-service teachers, have poor mathematical background which reflects           negatively in the delivering of their subject content. This in a long way contributes         to the poor academic performance of pupils in primary schools.
Many pre-service teachers are only in school to acquire certificate for promotion, white collar jobs among others. They put little effort in what they do when they are        on teaching practice as a pre-service teacher. In such case, they do not contribute to        the life of the pupils but they subtract from them.
Despite the training given to a pre-service teacher, many of them still find it very   difficult to face their learners and teach effectively.

They lack confidence and give up easily to challenges. Most pre-service teachers do not even participate in the teaching practice exercise. They sought their selves and become problem to the society tomorrow. Beside, they have no defined or varied method of teaching and they get angry easily when the pupils ask questions or lack interest in their subject. Today, one cannot tell who really is a teacher as most people who attend a teacher training institute are not productive in their profession.

1.2     Purpose of the Study

The following are the purpose of the study:

  1. To determine whether mathematics anxiety in pre-service mathematics teachers have any significant effective on students’ academic performance.
  2. To determine whether pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy have any significant effect on students’ academic performance.
  3. To determine whether pre-service content of knowledge have any significant effect on students’ academic performance.

1.3     Research Questions

The following are the research questions formulated in the research work:

  1. Does mathematics anxiety in pre-service teachers have any significant effect on     pupils’ academic performance?
  2. Does pre-service teacher self-efficacy have any significant effect on pupils’ academic performance?
  3. Does pre-service teacher content knowledge have any significant effect on pupils’ academic performance in mathematics?

1.4     Research Hypothesis

  1. Mathematics anxiety in pre-service teachers does not have any significant effect on pupils’ academic performance?
  2. Pre-service teacher self-efficacy does not have any significant effect on pupils’ academic performance?
  3. Pre-service teacher content knowledge does not have any significant effect on students’ academic performance.

1.5     Significance of the Study

It is hope that his study will help the managements of teachers’ institution, government, and curriculum planners on the significance of proper training of pre-serves teachers in teaching mathematics in primary schools since the primary school is the foundation of the pupils education.
This study will expose pre-service teachers on the importance of teaching practice as a would be teacher. It will explain the benefit of undergoing teaching practice and the consequences of forfeiting it.
This Study will identify area in which a pre-service teacher can improve on his or her self confidence and be projective in teaching. Besides, It will help to identify the area in while a pre-service teacher can default in his/her delivering of subjective like mathematics and provide remedial.

1.6     Scope of the Study
The scope of the study will be restricted to Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. This is due to both time and the financial aspect of the research work. 200 respondents will be randomly selected consisting of pupils in four primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Questionnaires will be used to collect information from the respondents. The simple percentage and Chi-square statistical instrument will be used to analyze the data collected.

Get The Complete Material

Are You in Need of Help? Call us or WhatsApp us via +234-809-323-9919 or Email us via unifinalprojects@gmail.com


Disclaimer: The copyright owner created this PDF Content to serve as a RESEARCH GUIDE for students to conduct academic research.

The original PDF Research Material Guide that you receive can be used in the following ways.
  1. To provide additional information about the topic of the project.
  2. You can use them as a resource for your research (if you properly reference them).
  3. Proper paraphrasing is required (consult your school’s definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase).
  4. If properly referenced, direct citation.
We are grateful for your consideration of the copyright of the authors. Thank you so much for respecting the author's copyright.