Studies have shown that alcohol, drug use and drug dependence have had major impacts on students’ productivity, performance, efficiency at the workplace and academics respectively. This research work investigated  the effect of substance abuse on academic performance among students in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The sample for the study consisted of One hundred randomly selected students from four selected secondary schools. The data collected were tested using chi-square statistical tool at 0.05 level of significant. All the hypotheses tested were rejected. The findings revealed that there is significant relationship between substance abuse and the health of the adolescents. It also revealed that there is significant difference between the health of adolescents that use substance and those that do not. Based on the findings, the study recommendsamong others that campaigns against substance use should be incorporated in the school curricula with special focus on the adverse consequences of the substances used and establishment of Counselling Centres for Drug Control: Counselling centres should also be established in every college of education by the government or private individuals.


Title Page ​​​​​​​​​​i

Certification ​​​​​​​​​​ii

Dedication ​​​​​​​​​​iii



Chapter One: Introduction​​​​​​   1   6

1.1 Background to the Study​​​​​​​2
1.2 Statement of the Problem​​​​​​​3
1.3 Purpose of the Study ​​​​​​​3
1.4 Research Questions ​​​​​​​​4
1.5 Significance of the study ​​​​​​​4
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study​​​​​​4
1.7 Definition of Terms​​​​​​​​5

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature​​​​  7  –   25

2.1 Conceptual Clarification of Substance/Drug​​​​7

2.2Theories of Drug Abuse​​​​​​​11

2.2.1 Causes of Drug Abuse​​​​​​​12

2.2.2 Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse​​​​​14

2.3Recreational Drug Use​​​​​​​16

2.4.Social and Cultural Aspects of Drug Use among Adolescents​​17

2.4.1Social and cultural Factors Associated with Drug Abuse in Adolescents​​​​​​​​18

2.4.2Social and Cultural Consequences of Adolescent drug Abuse​​19

2.5  Social Economic effect of Drug Abuse Among Adolescents​​21

2.6Implications of Drug Abuse on Student Academic Performance222

2.7Strategies for Counselling​​​​​​​24

Chapter Three: Research Methodology ​​​​    26 – 28

3.1 Introduction ​​​​​​​​​26
3.2 Research Design​​​​​​    ​​26
3.3 Population of the Study​​​​​    ​​26
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques ​​​   ​​26
3.5 Research Instrument ​​​​​    ​​27
3.6 Validity of the Instrument    ​​​​​​27
3.7 Method of Collecting Data​​​​    ​​​27
3.8 Method of Data Analysis ​​​​​​​28

Chapter Four: Result and Discussion ​​​​​  29  –   35

4.0 Introduction​​​​​​​​​29

4.1Analysis of Respondents Personal Data​​​​​29

4.2Research Question​​​​​​​​31

4.3Commonly Abused Drugs by Adolescent in Ojo local Government Area of Lagos State.​​​​​​​​32

4. 4Difference between the behaviour of adolescent who take drugs and those who do not.​​​​​​​34

4.5Health Effects and Drug/Substance Abuse​​​​37

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 39  – 40

5.1 Summary​​​​​​​​ 39
5.2 Conclusion ​​​​​​​ ​​40
5.3 Recommendation ​​        ​​​​ ​​41
5.4 Suggestions for further Research​​​​​​42
5.5 Reflection of the Study​​​​​​​43

​​REFERENCES​​​​​​​​  4546

APPENDIX​​​​​​​​​  4750





1.1 Background to the Study

Since the early time herbs, leaves and plants have be use to heal and control disease. The use of drugs in itself does not consisted any danger, because drugs correctly administered have been a blessing. Falco (1998) as cited by Sambo (2008) viewed that “chronic use of substance can cause series, sometimes irreversible damage to adolescent physical and psychological development. The use of drugs could be beneficial or harmful depending on the mode of use. An unhealthy person needs drug to help behave well  and get healthy.

According to Okoye (2001) drug is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease or as a component of a medication. Drug is a substance that could bring about  change in the biological function through its chemical actions. It can also be said to be a chemical substance such as a narcotic on hallucinogen that affects the control nervous system causing change in behaviour often addition. Drugs can come, in form of chemical or herbs or fluid i.e injection.

Drug use is the proper administration of any chemical substance such that it produces an affect with a desirable outcome. Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to alter ones mental states in a way that it modifies emotions, perceptions and feelings for recreational purposes.

The wrong use of substance or drugs that cause change in the state and function of cell organ or organisms is known as “Drug Abuse” the excessive usage of drugs or using un-prescribed drugs is referred to as “Drug Abuse”. Drug abuse is a major public health problem all over the world (UNOD, 2005).

Adolescent is the transitional period of physical and psychological development between childhood and maturity. An adolescent is a teenager or a juvenile after puberty. The major group of people that falls in to this categories rangers from ages 14-20 years of age, but due to the rapid development in the biological aspect of a child i.e boy and girl) the adolescence period ranges from age 10-20 years of age (i.e those in their puberty stage).

Adolescent prefer an autonomous and independent life that is free from adult control or management, and one of the prevailing factors affecting adolescent is drug abuse/drug misuse. The effect of use among adolescents has been a stigma or moral decadence, violence,, thurgery, madness, assault, murder etc.

Drug use among youth can either be in form of substance abuse or prescribed drug. Currently, adolescents abuse drugs like taking excess drugs, some can go to the pharmacist and buy drugs which will endanger their health

The establishment of NAFDAC is a testimony in governmental effort towards discouraging the use of harmful drugs.  Many Nigerian youths are becoming drug dependants, while Nigeria gradually transits from the status of a drug-consuming nation to that of a drug-producing one. Young ones who are mainly from well-to-do homes are increasingly identifying with the ‘big boys’ that practice the use of substance like heroin and cocaine. Others substances like Indian hemp, which is frequently produced in Nigeria and other substances like Methamphetamine and tablet with codeine capable of intoxicating are mostly found in schools (Staff, 2012).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent times, the use of illicit drugs has been common among adolescent and has become a major issue in the workplace. Adolescent who are under the influence of alcohol are faced with emotional, psychological, physical and mental problems amongst others, also they are not going to be able to learn as well as students who devote their full attention to their education. Studies also have shown that heavy adolescent substance use can lead to problems working with memory and attention due to brain activities and school dropout. In as much as the use/abuse of drugs has become persuasive issues in recent decades, it is imperative to be acquainted with the fact that throughout history, almost every society has used psychoactive substances for medical, religious, or recreational purposes. It has been posed that drugs enhance  pleasure or performance and alters one consciousness, however this is a myth, hence this study seeks to investigate on perspectives in the drug use amongst adolescent.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to help get information on drugs among\ adolescent and also the extent at which adolescent use, abuse and misuse drugs.

It will also examine if drug abuse will have any significant effect of  adolescent behavioral adjustment.

To also find out if there is gender difference among adolescent drug users/abusers.

1.4 Research Questions

i. What are the common drugs likely to be abused by adolescent in the contemporary Nigeria society?
ii. Is there any significant difference between the behaviour of adolescent who take drugs and those who do not?
iii. Will drug abuse have any implication on health status of adolescent that abuse drugs?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study will be of supreme significance as it would provide basis for effective guidance to modify adolescent attitude towards the practice of drug use and abuse.  The findings of this study will help to understand various categories of drug use among teenagers;  the adolescent, parents, counsellors and stakeholders will also benefit from the project as it will also expose them to the dangers inherent in the use of illicit drugs. Also, the Society as a whole would benefit as it would be a useful resource material for anybody who wants to embark on further research or read for knowledge.

1.6​ Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus on male and female adolescent in public and private secondary schools classes. It will attempt to look at the  perspectives in the drug use amongst adolescent. The study would be limited to few schools because of time, that is, limited time of investigation, cost of investigative materials that is, printing cost.

1.7 Definition of Terms

For proper analysis and in-depth study this topic, the following are defined

1. Drug: a substance used to treat an illness, relive a symptom or modify a chemical  process in the body for a specific purpose, which alters t4h way the mind or body works.
2. Opiate: a drug, hormone or other substances derived from on related to opium
3. Mescalline: a Psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine class found naturally in several species of cacts.
4. Barbiturate: Any of a class of drug that acts as depressants of the central nervous system and are used as dedatives or hypnotics.
5. Amphetamines; a class of drugs used as a stimulants of the central nervous system in the treatment of ADHD, depression and narcolepsy and abused illegally as a stimulant.
6. Tranquillizers: In  Pharmacology , a drug used to reduce anxiety or tension; a sedative.
7. Cannabis: A madly euphoriant, intoxicating Ahallucinogenic drug prepared from various plants of this plant.  
8. Alcohol: An intoxicating beverage made by the  fermentation of sugar or sugar containing material.
9. Tobacco: these are leaves of certain verities of the plant cultivated and harvested to make cigarettes, cigars, snuffs for smoking in pipes or for chewing.
10. Cocaine: A stimulants narcotic in the form of a white powder that users generally self-administer by insuffication through the nose.
11. Psychotropic: In pharmacology, affecting the mind or mental processes.
12. Addiction: This is an act of adherent to something, especially to a harmful drug.
13. Adolescence: This is a period of change over from childhood to adulthood and this critical developmental period is marked by several physical, psycohlogocicl and social changes.
14. Psychotropic Drug: any drug capable of affecting the mind, emotions and behaviour, it is a tranquilizer, sedative or anti depressant