The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there exist gender difference in integrated science achievement among NCE pre-service teacher in Lagos State a case study of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto – Ijanikin, and to determine the range of the gap that exist. The data gathering instrument (instrumentation0 used in the study of this research work was the results of the final year students offering integrated science for the past five years (i.e. 2003 to 2007). These results were collected from the office of the Dean of school of Science. The analysis of these results showed that there is no significant difference between the results of integrated science of male and female used for the study.



TITLE PAGE                                                                         I

CERTIFICATION                                                                  II

DEDICATION                                                                        III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                      IV

ABSTRACT                                                                           V

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                  VI



Background of the study                                                      1

Statement of the problem                                                     8

Purpose of the study                                                            9

Significance of the study                                                      9

Research questions                                                             10

Hypothesis                                                                             10

Scope of the study                                                                11

Operational definition of terms                                            11



Introduction                                                                            12

Empirical Background                                                          18

What is gender difference?                                                 22

What is gender roles?                                                          23

What is gender relations?                                                    23

Possible causes of gender differences in

integrated science                                                                24



Research method                                                                 30

Population of the study                                                                  31

Research method                                                                 31

Sample and sampling techniques                                                31

Research instrument                                                            32

Method of data analysis                                                       32


DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION                              34



Summary                                                                               43

Recommendations                                                               45





  • Background of the Study

The main focus of great concern in this field of science education is the basis and misconceptions about women and science, i.e. science is a male enterprise (Erinosho, 2005).

In Nigeria, and perhaps Africa, gender bias is still very prevalent. It is not surprising then that the school, being a microcosm of the society, consciously or unconsciously perpetuates stereotypical behaviour and indeed teachers within the system exhibit gender bias in the classrooms (Arigbabu and Mji, 2004). For example, it has been reported that teachers, consciously or unconsciously, often mate and differentiate treatment to boys and girls in their classrooms (Rubble and Martins, 1978). This is a view to which Onyeizugbo (2003) has also alluded to in pointing out that “sex roles are somewhat rigid in Africa, particularly in Nigeria, gender differences are emphasized”. It is common place to see gender stereotype manifested in the day-today life of an average Nigerian. Certain vocation and professions (medicine, engineering and architecture) have traditionally been regarded as being for men and others (nursing, catering, secretary, and arts) are for women.

Typically, parents call boys to wash cars, cut grass, fix bulbs, or climb ladder to fix or remove things. On the other hand, chores such as washing dishes, cooking, clearing and so on are reserved for the girls. In a nutshell, what are regarded as complex and difficult tasks are allocated to boys, whereas girls are expected to handle the relatively easy and less demanding tasks. As a result of this way of thinking, the larger society has tended to see girls as the “weaker sex”.

Consequently, an average Nigerian child goes to school with these fix stereotypes. These stereotypes persist because in terms of assertiveness for examples, men in Nigeria were reported to be more assertive than women among teacher education law, pharmacy and medicine.

Erinosho (2005) said that there were lots of disparities between men and women in some key institutions in Nigeria. The disparities, according to Erinosho (2005) are as illustrated in the table below.

Women’s Participation in Key Position in Nigeria, 2007

Position Total Women %women
Vice chancellors 50 02 04
Registrar 50 07 1.4
Pro-chancellors 50 01 2.3
Appointed council member (federal university) 161 03 1.2
Seats in parliament (lower house) 450 30 6.7
Ministerial levels 72 16 22.6
Seats in upper house 108 03 2.8
Speakers of state houses 36 02 5.6
National political reform conference 375 31 08

Research of Poole and Isaacs (1993) indicates that the conservative, reproductive nature and function of education continues from pre-service to professional teaching. It was later concluded that it should not be anticipated that states on completing teacher. education programmes would be ready or able to break down the gender bias they were likely to encounter in their personal or professional lives. Supporting these findings, Sikes (1991) concluded that “student teachers do hold traditional stereotypes as part of their personal, taken-for-granted knowledge about the world. This is not unexpected because there is no reason to suppose that their gender socialization in the home and at school has been any less successful than that of anyone else. Teachers education programme in the university do not seem to be able to counter the problems identified here because as Sikes (1991) pointed out “maintaining the status quo may be an important and intended function of education systems but it is also true that teachers have a propensity for unconsciously as well as consciously reproducing their own experiences.

From the on going, gender bias has persisted even within the science classroom. There are mixed reports on the research on gender difference in society. Many researchers provided reports that there are no longer distinguishing differences in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skill achievements of students in respect of gender (Abayomi 2004, Awoderu, 2006; David and Stanley, 2002; Din et al 2004, Freedman, 2002, Sungur and Fekkaya, 2003). Girls are being encouraged and sensitized into developing positive attitudes towards science.

Other researchers have reported differently on this issue. For example, in one study carried out by (Eriba and Sesuhj, 2006, Onekutu and Onekutu, 2003) they found that boys out-performed girls in science and mathematics achievements. Some other research studies reported that males are becoming the disadvantaged gender in schools and that fewer males are interested in science (Alkhateeb, 2001; Blever and Waltz, 2002, Omoniyi, 2006, Weaver, Hightower,2003).

Teacher plays a vital role in addressing the problem of gender equity in science education. According to Levi (2000), there are three main roles a teacher must play, namely:

  1. Ensure provision of equal opportunities and respect for differences in the classroom
  2. Ensure that boys and girls have the same experiences, i.e. treat them equally and
  3. Compensate for gender differences on society.

Biases and misconceptions about women and science has remained the main focus of great concern (Erinosho, 2005) and there are moves for policy and practice to enhance gender inclusive science education.

However, the issue of gender differences in students’ performance in Integrated Science as listed below cannot be over emphasized.

  1. To develop scientific skills useful to the society and in the study of other subjects
  2. To encourage individuals to build things in many perspectives
  3. Developing a sense of logical or orderly arrangement of materials.
  4. To provide the child with the basic manipulative skill in ordinary life.
  5. To strengthen the power of thinking in students
  6. Training the mind in the habit of accurate reasoning and positive thinking.

From the above objectives of Integrated Science, one could see Integrated Science as a must for every sex, more so that Integrated Science stands as a broad field for all science subjects (Chemistry, Physics and Biology) and helps to develop the interest of the learners towards science.

It is for this purpose and others that the researcher investigated into whether there exists gender difference in integrated science achievement among pre-service teachers in Nigeria was carried out. And if there is any degree of gender gap, to what extent and which sex, male or female is favored in the gap and what are the possible solutions to this problem.

There has been few research works on gender differences in Integrated Science achievement among pre-service teachers in Lagos State. It is important to note that Integrated Science is the grass root subject that introduces children into the field of science. If care of equity is taken at this level, it thus provides sound bases for reducing gender biases and misconceptions in the field of science. Therefore, this study then aimed at investigating gender difference in Integrated Science achievement among Lagos State pre-service teachers.

  • Statement of the Problem

It has been observed in our Colleges of Education that students, on their part; tend to have formed a stereotyped concept on scientists and mathematicians whom they regard as special groups. In such a concept female students do not see themselves as having the potential to become scientist and mathematicians. To establish that gender differences in Integrated Science achievement among pre-service teachers in Nigeria try to exist and to identify what the differences are, is the concern of this research.

Thus, this study tried to explain the differences that exist in the performance of male and female among pre-service teachers in Nigeria.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is:

  1. To determine whether there exists gender differences in the performance of Integrated Science pre-service teachers in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education
  2. To determine the range of the gap that exists
  3. To determine the Gender difference in integrated science achievement among nce pre-service teachers in Lagos state
  • Significance of the Study

This study aimed at teaching the areas which have not been dealt with properly in previous researches. It intended to broaden knowledge of what has been known already about gender disparity in solving problems in Integrated Science. The study is of help to Integrated Science lecturers in understanding why male and female (boys and girls) respond to Integrated Science the way they do and assist them to identify the possible steps they should take in order to help students to respond to Integrated Science in a way that will narrow or close completely the gap.

  • Research Questions
  1. Will men perform better than women in integrated Science final year course?
  • Hypothesis
  1. There is no significant difference in examination scores of both sexes in Integrated Science.
  2. There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students in their final year Integrated Science results.
  • Scope of the Study

This research introduced only Integrated Science department of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education (AOCOED), Otto – Ijanikin

Operational Definition of Terms

Gender:     refers to the male and female Integrated Science students

Society:    Teaching – learning environment of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education

Gender Difference:      refers to the disagreement that exists between the both sexes

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