This study was undertaken on “Corruption and good governance in Nigeria’s fourth republic: A case study of Muhammad Buhari’s Administration”. Background to the study was examined to describe relevant issues to the project work in chapter one. Relevant and related literatures were reviewed in the second chapter of this work. The research method adopted for the study was a descriptive survey used to collect information needed. With the use of a well structured questionnaire, data were gathered from these respondents and interpreted using a carefully selected statistical analysis, Chi-square. Having subjected the hypotheses to chi-square verification, all the null hypotheses raised for the study were rejected. Finally, the fifth chapter made a general summary of the research work where conclusions were drawn and recommendations were suggested.



Title page                                                                                                       i

Certification                                                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                                                     iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                                          v

Table of content                                                                                           vi

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the Problems                                                             3

1.3       Research Questions                                                                       4

1.4       Research Hypothesis                                                                     4

1.5       Purposes of the study                                                                     5

1.6       Significance of the study                                                               5

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                          6

1.8       Limitation of the Study                                                                    6

1.9       Clarification of Terms                                                                      6


2.0       Introduction                                                                                       7

2.1       Corruption and Governance: Conceptual Analysis                  7

2.2       Corruption in Nigeria: Historical Perspective                              11

2.3       The Nature and Causes of Corruption in Nigeria                      12

2.4       Corruption and Good Governance: The Nigeria Dilemma       18

2.5       Corruption and Good Governance in Nigeria: what needs to

be done?                                                                                           27

2.6       Theoretical Exploration                                                                   31

2.7       Conclusion                                                                                       34


3.1       Introduction                                                                                       36

3.2       Design of the Study                                                                                    36

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                  36

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                              36

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection                                                      37

3.6       Validity of the Instrument                                                               37

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument                                                           37

3.8       Method of Data Collection                                                             37

3.9       Method of Data Analysis                                                                38

QUESTIONNAIRE                                                                          39


4.1       Method of Data Analysis                                                                42

4.2       Respondents’ Bio-Data                                                                  42

4.3       Respondents’ Occupation                                                             44

4.4       Testing of Hypotheses and Presentation of Results                 45

4.5       Hypothesis One                                                                               45

4.6       Hypothesis Two                                                                               47

4.7       Hypothesis Three                                                                            49

4.8       Hypothesis Four                                                                              51

4.9       Summary of Findings                                                                     53


5.1       Summary                                                                                           54

5.2       Recommendations                                                                          55

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                       56

REFERENCES                                                                                            58




1.1       Background To The study

In every society and community, there are certain behaviours, which are very much detested in the course of interpersonal relationships, and group behaviour. The behaviours include cheating, lying, etc. These behaviours which have moral, ethical, legal and religious implications are detested because they are inimical to proper and decent standards. The pattern of that encapsulates all this detested attitude is corruption (Omoluabi, 2017).

Corruption is a household name in every society nowadays and the negative impact it has on the socio-economic and political setting of a country can hardly be over emphasized. There has been a global cry and coordinated efforts to tackle this social evil through the creation and implementation of anti-graft laws and policies across nations. Some nations have been successful in their quest to reduce the level of corruption while others are still lagging behind. In this light, Nigeria seems to be an example of a state that failed in combating corruption. From the common man in the street to the highest political figure, corruption is recurrent in almost every transaction in the Nigerian society.

Within the last one decade, the issue of corruption and good governance has taken the centre stage in development discourse worldwide. Corruption is shaking the foundation of the nation as there is no sector that is not affected by this monster. The challenges of corruption remain a major devastating issue facing Nigeria since the colonial period, although, this phenomena has become a cankerworm that has eaten deep into the fabrics of our system (Muhammed, 2013).

Over the years, public sector in Nigeria has been characterized largely by ineffectiveness and inefficiency. The situation is not different in other African countries. High-level corruption has been identified as being responsible for Nigeria’s underdevelopment and growing crimes rates. It is instructive to note that the Nigerian government and citizens have not totally committed themselves to introducing and implementing measures that can prevent or drastically reduce the extent and consequence of corruption in the country. That is not to say that laws, institutions and programmes for controlling corruption have not been introduced by successive governments. On the contrary, every Nigerian government since 1975 introduced elaborate laws and programmes, only for officials to turn such programmes into fertile opportunity for corrupt practices and enrichment. Consequently, there has been a geometrical growth in the rate of corruption in the country (Etannibi, 2012).

Etannibi (2012) also claimed that corruption is the source of many socio-economic and political problems that have militated against the attainment of economic development, equity, social justice, political integration and stability as well as democracy in Nigeria. The employment, promotions, postings and deployment processes in the federal service are riddled with corruption, and it was estimated that Nigeria had lost to corruption as much as $400 billion between 1966 and 1999. Yet corruption in Nigeria preceded 1966 and has continued ever since beyond 2007 with greater ferocity and intensity (Olokor, 2013). Since the return of the country to civil rule on May 29, 1999, the Nigerian government has taken a number of measures to address the problems of corruption and bad governance in the country. Despite the successes attained by these measures, the situation remains unacceptable as corruption continues to permeate and pervade every facet of national life in Nigeria.

In this research article, the data for the study were basically selected from secondary materials such as textbooks, internet materials, newspapers, magazines, and journals articles, etc, through a systematic qualitative content analysis.

In discussing issues in this study, the article is divided into eight sections. The first section dealt with the introduction, the second focused on the conceptual exploration where corruption, governance and good governance were conceptualized while the third aspect treated the theoretical framework. In the fourth section, attempt was made to look at the historical development of corruption in Nigeria. The nature and causes of corruption is the focus of the fifth section. The sixth section takes a cursory look at the dilemma of corruption and good governance in Nigeria. In the seventh section, attempt was made to proffer remedial actions for the study, while the last section presented the concluding remarks.

1.2       Statement of the Problems

Corruption has been one of the main cogs in the wheels of sustainable democracy in Nigeria. Well-endowed in terms of natural and human resources, it is ironic that Nigeria remains one of the most under-developed countries of the world, largely because of the menace of corruption. This is why it is pertinent to pay particular attention to the issue of corruption, if Nigeria has to sustain its current democratic experiment. This becomes more pertinent given the fact that despite official institutional mechanisms designed to tame the monster, the upsurge in the manifestations of diverse forms of corrupt practices since the inception of civil rule in 1999 has continued to be a major source of threat to democratic survival. Worse still, while corruption is a global phenomenon, it would appear to have become more endemic and problematic in Nigeria, prevalent among both the leaders and followers. This paper explores the nexus between corruption and good governance in Nigeria’s fourth republic. It reflects on the manifestations of corruption in Nigeria; offers explanations for their manifestations; shows its impact on democratization; and offers actionable remedial measures.

1.3       Research Questions

  1. Does corruption hamper good governance in the State?
  2. Could corruption be responsible for poor democratic institution in the State?
  3. Is corruption the cause for political violence in the state?
  4. Does corruption determine the winner of an election?

1.4       Research Hypothesis

For the successful completion of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. Corruption does not hampered good governance in Lagos State.
  2. Corruption is not responsible for poor democratic institution in Lagos state.
  3. There is no significant relationship between corruption and violence in Lagos state
  4. There is no significant relationship between corruption and the outcome of an election

1.5       Purposes Of The study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of corruption and good governance with specific reference to Lagos State. Other specific objectives include:

  1. To examine whether corruption has hampered good governance in the State.
  2. To investigate whether corruption is responsible for poor Democratic institution in the State.
  3. To investigate if corruption is the cause for political violence in the state.
  4. To determine if corruption determines the winner in an election

1.6       Significance of the study

The study, corruption and good governance in Nigeria is a topic in which the researcher intends to look into so as to make clarification to whether it really hampers or sustain good governance in Lagos state. The outcome of this research will benefit the students, political or non political entities and the general public as perception on the effect of corruption and governance will be clarified.

1.7       Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on the effect of corruption and good governance in Nigeria and this will be carried out in Ojo local government area of Lagos state.

1.8       Limitation of the Study

The research will be limited to Ojo local government area of Lagos state only due to the following reasons;

(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.

1.9       Clarification Of Terms

Corruption: Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery.

Politics: The activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate between parties having power.

Democracy: A system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

Sustainability: The ability to maintain  a certain thing or level.

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