The fundamental principle of UBE in Nigeria is that everybody must have access to equivalent education comprehensively and co-educationally. The concept of the Universal Primary Education (UPE), introduced in 1976 (6 years of education), was changed into basic education (9 years of education) twenty-three years later. Basic education is not completely new, but its meaning has been broadened after the world declaration on Education For All (EFA) and the framework for Action to meet Basic learning needs. The policy provision of these documents surpasses what was on the ground then. Three demographic studies on the existing national situation in the primary education sector revealed that 12% of primary school pupils sit on the floor, 38% of classrooms have no ceilings, 87% of classrooms are overcrowded, and 77% lack textbooks. Almost all sampled teachers are poorly motivated, coupled with a lack of community interest and participation in the management of the schools. That was the prelude to the launching of the UBE introduced in line with the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs). Consequently, this paper examines the unique features of the UBE and the extent to which the Nigerian school-age population can benefit from the policy. This research, therefore, aims to assess the on-the-field performance of the UBE policy.




Background of the study

         The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme is a recalled programme of the 6-3-3-4 educational system in Nigeria. UBE programme was introduced to the Federal Government of Nigeria to remove distortions and inconsistencies in basic Education and reinforce the national policy on education. UBE is also a universal concept to ensure that every citizen enjoys the fundamental human right to education. It is expected to provide qualitative free and compulsory education to Nigerian children from primary to junior secondary schooling. The specific aims and objectives include the following:

  1. Inadequate funding
  2. Lack of awareness of UPE before the inadequate
  3. Lack of trained teacher
  4. Lack of inadequate infrastructure and equipment
  5. The population explosion resulted in inadequate materials in the schools.

The UBE arose in keeping with the requirement of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 for its educational objectives includes.

  1. Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring equal and adequate educational opportunities.
  2. Government shall eradicate illiteracy by providing free, compulsory and universal primary education, free secondary education, free university education and free adult literacy programme.
  3. It was a commendable effort on the part of the federal government to make education free and compulsory throughout the federation in 1979

According the Universal Basic Education Commission, which was established in May 2004 by an act of the National assembly known as the UBE Act 2004; It provides opportunities for every interested Nigerian child of school grown age to take advantage of this free and compulsory education to improve an individual in line with the global policy that every citizen of the world enjoys fundamental human rights to education.

The UBE programme is a people-oriented programme that concerns every Nigerian as a critical stakeholder to be involved in attaining its goals. There are stakeholders involved in the UBE programme, which are the government at all the three tiers (Federal, State and Local), the students, parents, school, proprietors and teachers, i.e. (curriculum implementers)

As the major backbone of UBE, the teacher has played a specific role in the programme. Indeed, the success of the UBE scheme is waged on the availability of teachers with the right quality and qualitative instruction that is capable of impacting the public students.

Students should regularly be supervised and guided by the teachers when passing information, knowledge, and instruction in the teaching-learning process for laying the foundation of sustainable and lifelong learning. The newly introduced UBE programme to succeed and outline, it needs to be regularly organised, monitored and evaluated by giving the students an oral question to know if the stated objectives have been achieved at the end of every term, which is aimed at the promotion of pupils intellectual skills into the next educational programme.

Yoloye (2004) observed that the concept of basic education is not a completely new term in Nigerian society and that within the last decade, it has assumed a global significance, and its meanings have been broadened. The expanded vision of UBE comprises the universalizing of access and promotion of equity, focusing on learning and enhancing the environment of learning and strengthening partnerships.

Statement of the problem

         This research will look into the ultimate aims for the introduction of UBE by ensuring interrupted access to nine years of formal education, catering for the learning needs and methods of teaching, and promoting basic education; universal access to education has been a prime target for Nigeria in the last four decades, and Nigeria is a signatory of world declarations on education for all, Igwe (2006) reported that the on the United National Organization (UNO) article 26 on the Universal Declaration of human rights stated in part that everyone has the right to education, and this shall be free in elementary and primary stages. So, on both the national and international levels, Nigeria is committed to providing basic education to all its citizens. Many attempts have been made in this direction, but no noticeable positive results have been recorded. The implementation problem continues to be a perennial problem in fulfilling a constitutional and social obligation to make access possible to all.

Therefore, this research is set to assess the on-the-field experiences of the programme by stakeholders, e.g. the school principals, teachers, students, and parents.

Purpose of the study

         This project work is about Universal Basic Education for effective strategies for organizing, managing and evaluating the student. It is a purposeful design for the following.

  • To prepare students adequately for the UBE programme.
  • To find out how to develop the citizen by promoting and providing free and compulsory UBE for the Nigerian child.
  • To investigate and discover how the dreaded UBE programme can influence the student’s management, organization, and evaluation in a schooling system.
  • To identify areas where the federal government and vegetarians must contribute their quota to developing education in Nigeria.
  • To help teachers to understand better strategies for evaluating a student.

Significance of the study

         The research work is to draw the attention of the stakeholders involved in the programme, the teachers and the students for adequate consultation in the planning and formulation of the UBE programme.

This study will also serve as a reference or guideline to help prospective bold and courageous students know more about the UBE programme scheme.

Research questions

         This finding or research project shall focus on answering the following questions.

  1. Would teachers be useful in the achievement of the Universal Basic Education Programme?
  2. Did the Universal Basic Education programme make any provision available for teachers’ methodology in the teaching-learning process?
  3. Did the Universal Basic Education programme influence student evaluation in the learning process?.
  4. How do junior secondary school principals assess the implementation of the Universal Basic Education?
  5. How do some beneficiaries of the programme, i.e. students, perceive the UBE programme.

Research hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between teachers and the achievement of the UBE programme

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the UBE programme and the evaluation of students in the learning process

Scope of delimitation of the study

The findings of this study will be of great interest, if not all, to the three tiers of government, i.e. the federal, state and local governments in Nigeria. We see the reason to adequately support and fund the UBE programme to a realistic end whereby they will understand that education is the only search for effective government because there are few or not many materials and information on the subject matter and also for the state of financial constraint, the researcher works in limited to four (4) selected school in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.


Definition of terms

UBEC: Universal Basic Education Commission

UBE: Universal Basic Education

UPE Universal Primary Education

NPE: National Policy on Education

FREE: It costs nothing

LITERACY: Inability to read and write

STRATEGY: The process of planning something or carrying out a plan in a skilful and sensible way

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