THE EFFECT OF LABORATORY METHOD OF TEACHING ON OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT IN PHYSICS

THE EFFECT OF LABORATORY METHOD OF TEACHING ON OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN PHYSICS.(A CASE STUDY OF BADAGRY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)

 

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to analytically verify the effect of laboratory method of teaching on overall performance of students in physics. This aims at knowing if there is a significant differences among the performance of student exposed to laboratory method of teaching, lecture method of teaching and the contribution of two i.e. the lecture and the laboratory method. Fifteen-test item question by the investigation and validated by the supervisor in charge. The tests items was administered and scored in three schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State. Eighty students were involved in the study in which thirty students are from Badagry Grammar School, thirty were from Ikoga Grammar School and the remaining was from State High School. Average method of data analysis was used to test whether or not the students that were exposed to both laboratory and lecture method performed significantly better than the rest. However, the following recommendations were made. Science teachers in general should be able to adopt various method of teaching science that would make the learning of science meaningful. He should discard those aspects of his traditional system of belief and de-emphasize those tendencies, which predispose him to the memorization and regulation of facts, all of which are antithetical to the scientific attitude of the mind. He must teach science not set of facts to be learned by route but as a method of inquiry to be experienced. Appropriate instructional materials should be effectively used to enhance teaching of science. Observations have shown that the student should thought rate of truancy; abuse and addition, hooliganism and asceticism have physics teaching and learning process. It is therefore behave on student to show positive attitude to physics learning if student devote much time to their study and show adequate interest in classroom, physics teaching will be effective. However, science laboratory, teaching facilities and scientific equipment are among the constraints of our science education programme, which physics, as a subject is not exception. This is because such facilities are either absolutely lacking in our schools where they do exit, are grossly absolutely lacking in our schools or where they do exit, are grossly inadequate. The impact of these deficiencies has adverse effect on learning of physics and science in t general to students. Regular refresher courses, workshop and conferences if designed for physics teachers and inspectors of science education will update the teachers and inspectors knowledge of the techniques for physics teaching. These conferences and workshops should be used as avenue for the physics educators/physics curriculum designers to expose both the teachers and inspectors to the philosophy of physics teaching and these will enable them to monitor the extent of physics learning in schools.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                                                                                        i

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                                ii

DEDICATION                                                                                       iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                          iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                          vi

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                            viii

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the study                                                                     1

Statement of the problem                                                                  6

Significance of the study                                                                    7

Statement of hypotheses                                                          8

Purpose of the study                                                                          9

Scope & delimitation of the study                                                      10

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review                                                                              12

CHAPTER THREE

Research method                                                                               25

Research design                                                                                 25

Population & sample                                                                          26

Instrumentation                                                                                 27

Method of data collection                                                                   27

Data analysis                                                                                      28

CHAPTER FOUR

Data collection & analysis                                                                   29

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary                                                                                           35

Conclusion                                                                                          36

Recommendation                                                                               38

REFERENCES                                                                             41

APPENDIX                                                                                           43

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Background of the study

Physics is majorly considered with those appearances of nature which can be understood in a fundamental way in terms of elementary principles and laws.

The aim of physics is to understand the structure of the natural world and explaining natural phenomenon. This could be done effectively using laboratory and lecture methods of teaching to propagate idea. Student needs a first science experience and that is more reason why the British Government also developed the Nuffield science project (NUDSON 1980).

Physics curriculum is aimed at satisfying the requirement of the senior secondary school programme in the new national policy of education as regard senior secondary school programme. In the same vein it also enable teachers to known the actual areas of knowledge required of them to pass the student. Indeed, all over world, it has been identified to be the instrument of technological and perhaps economic growth; its uses in realizing this ample goal cannot be over emphasized.

The national educational aim and objectives to which the philosophy is linked are:-

  • The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around.
  • The acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competencies both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society (National policy 1977).

In view of these above objectives. It is expected that student exposed to physics will acquire the following skills: –

  • Observational skill
  • Reporting clearly and carefully what is observed
  • Using the acquired knowledge or information to generalize idea.
  • Explaining new phenomenon using a model where necessary.
  • Where new data do not conform to prediction, the process of inquiry continues
  • Organization of acquired skill
  • Design experiment (including control) where necessary to check population

However, the result of past researcher showed that most teachers are not adopting the method stated by science teachers association Nigeria.

(STAN) to help teachers develop the skills stated above. In many secondary schools were science education could be said to exist, the attainment of our goal and objectives is married with many problems. Presently its has been discovered that we operate science education with little or no science equipment, materials, laboratory and other essential.

Infrastructures it is therefore not surprising that the student who have to suffer through this shameful process are disenchanted and apathetic and factor through developing negative attitudes towards science as indicated by a study undertaken by Odunusi in 1984.

Consequently, classroom teachers have been viewed as the most important variable influencing students’ instructional outcomes. Within the complex instructional structure, of the classroom, it should be assumed that student most hold expectations for their own learning outcome based on the cumulative experiences from the discipline.

According to Brann (1976), the paper notes that many curriculum projects in Nigeria particularly CERSAC’S Nigeria Secondary Science project (NSSSP) adopts the inquiry method of teaching and recognize inquiry skill as an essential outcome of science instruction / teaching. On the contrary, it could also be seen that in West African Examination Council (WAEC), practical plays a prominent role in scoring the overall performance of student. The chief examiners of West African examination council report in 1896 that physics, as a subject require enough experiment. Experiments could also be seen as effective tool to promote logical thinking and enhance cognitive achievement of student.

However, it is important to note that laboratory method of teaching provides the following advantages to pupils. They are as follows:

  • It eradicates rote learning: students exposed to practical have the ability to retain what they have learnt because of the direct personal encounter with the learning instrument.
  • Practical allow students to interact meaningful with learning materials. This enables them to develop necessary concepts understanding and production of the science skills and develop critical thinking ability.
  • It also prepares students to be actively oriented during classroom instruction. During practical, students can develop skills such as observation, classification, creative and manipulation of variables.
  • It also enables pupils in confirmation of scientific theories formulated/propounded by another scholar.
  • Students can be trained to become experts scientifically through practical via the use of laboratory method of teaching.

Having realized all these, and the level of development of education and attainment in Badagry Local Government area of Lagos State, the researcher is therefore in a position to carry out an unbiased investigation on “the effect of laboratory method of teaching on the overall performance of students in physics” in the same local government area.

Statement of the problem

    This study intends to investigate the effect of laboratory method of instruction on overall performance of students in physics in Badagry local government area of Lagos State.

This study becomes necessary bearing in mind that the level of performance of students in physics is yet to attain a maximum standard as regarded their performance in the final result of senior secondary school certificate examination held in recent times.

It is observed that in some schools, teachers do not exposed the students to the practical aspect of their studies not until two or few weeks to their final examination period. This at the end of the day cumulates in poor performance, which is nothing to write about at the end of six years in secondary school education.

It has also been observed that students learn and acquire more knowledge if they are actively involved in the learning process. Generally, the observation that many students do not like physics as a subject because of so many reasons, which includes the way and manner the message of the concept, is passed across to the pupils, the style of classroom instruction, learning environment. Learning presentation and the attitude of the pupils themselves towards learning cannot be overruled.

Significance of the study

This study is in a nutshell aimed at finding a solution to the problems militating against effective performance of students in physics. This study however will be of great importance not only to physics students but also to physics teachers, science students and teachers as a whole in all Nigerian schools.

It will also serve as a guide to other researchers that might want to investigate the causes of poor performance of students in physics at the grass root level.

Moreover, the study is also significant in other to find out the significance contribution that practical have overall performance of physics students.

This will assist all the physics teachers at large to choose appropriately the best approach to teaching and learning of science subjects and more importantly physics during classroom instruction.

More so, it will help school administrators, curriculum planners and educational policy makers in finding a lasting solution to the factors affecting the use of laboratory in relation to the performance of pupils working there.

The study is also geared towards changing the primitive attitude of instructors to modern science and technology ideas necessary and capable of changing the students’ behaviors after instruction.

The study can also serve as a motivational method of improving learner’s attitude towards assimilation of ideas, principles and knowledge during period of instruction in the classroom.

Statement of Hypothesis

The under listed hypothesis will be specifically tested during the course of this study:

  • There will be no significant differences in the overall performance of physics students exposed to practical or laboratory method of teaching and their counterparts exposed to lecture methods.
  • There will be a significant difference in the overall performance of students exposed to laboratory differences in the overall performance of student exposed to both laboratory method of teaching and lecture method of teaching and their counterparts exposed to just only one method.
  • There will be a significant difference in the overall performance of students exposed to both laboratory method of teaching and lecture method of teaching and their counterparts exposed to just only one method.

Purpose of the study

In recent times, the SSCE result released in Badagry Local Government  area of Lagos state revealed that the level of performance of the physics students should be improves. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of laboratory method of the teaching in the overall performance of students in physics. The study takes a scientific look at how students are exposed to it. It also involves how it can contribute to cognitive development and achievement of students in physics. Past researchers and studies revealed that knowledge, concepts in physics could best be taught effectively via aid of practical.

Scope and delimitation of the study

The secondary schools, which were selected at random in Badagry Local Government area, are:

  • Badagry Grammar School, Badagry
  • Ikoga Grammar School, Ikoga-Zebbe
  • State High School, Ibereko.

Thirty (30) students were selected from Badagry Grammar School, Badagry in which students were chosen for the experimental group and 15 students were also chosen for the control group. Thirty (30) students were also selected from Ikoga Grammar School, Ikoga-Zebbe in which 15 students were chosen for the experimental group and 15 students were also chosen for the control group. Lastly, only twenty (20) students were selected from State Grammar School, Ibereko.

This makes a total of 80 students in all three schools selected. This is to say that we have 30 students for the control group and 50 students for the experimental group.

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