THE IMPACT OF COMMUNICATION ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES CONCEPTS (A SURVEY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL EDUCATION DISTRICT OF LAGOS STATE)
This study focused on the impact of communication on the learning and teaching of social studies concepts. To guide the researcher, four hypotheses were formulated and testing using chi-square statistics, at 0.05 significance level. Fifty items of questionnaire was administered in this study. The result shows that there is a great relationship between methodology, subject matter and communication skill and effective classroom interaction. Based on the findings, it was concluded that variables like teacher’s methodology, communication skill of both the teachers and the students, teacher knowledge of the subject matter were significant predictors of effective classroom interaction and most importantly effective communication plays a significant role in interaction too. The study also suggested that teachers should be provided with opportunity where they can develop such attributes.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the study 7
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research Hypothesis 9
1.6 Significance of the study 10
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the study 10
1.8 Definition of Terms 11
2.0 Review of Related Literature 15
2.1 Nature of Social Studies 16
2.2 Nature of the Learners 19
2.3 Role of Communication in Learning 20
2.4 Role of Communication in Teaching 22
2.5 Importance of Effective Communication on
the Teaching of Social Studies Concepts 26
2.6 Barrier to effective classroom communication 29
2.7 Implication of Communication in Teaching and
Learning for the Social Studies Teacher 35
Chapter III: Methodology
3.1 Research Design 39
3.2 Population of the study 40
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 40
3.4 Research Instrument 41
3.5 Validation of Instrument 42
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 42
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 42
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 43
Chapter IV: Data Analysis and Discussion
4.0 Introduction 45
4.1 Findings and Analysis of Findings 45
Chapter V: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary 66
5.2 Conclusion 67
5.3 Recommendations 68
5.4 Suggestion for further research 70
- Background to the study
The topic of this study is specially designed to enable the researcher examine the impact of communication on the teaching and learning of social studies concepts. The process of education has two dimensions: teaching and learning.
Education is the process of life that starts from cradle to grave that is, from one’s birth to death. It starts from homes and continues even after school to adulthood.
Fafunwa (1974) defines education as the sum total of all the process by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other form of behaviour which are of positive values to the society in which he lives.
Teaching is a process of communicating and impacting basic knowledge and skills in a formal or informal situation that will bring about change in behaviour. It is an interactive process between the instructor and the learners through the process of communication which directs learning activities.
Akinpelu (1981) sees teaching as a conscious and deliberate effort by a matured or experienced person to impact knowledge, information, skills, attitude and beliefs to an in mature or less experienced person to believe what he is taught on a rational basis.
Hengenhann (1982) defines learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour, potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice.
Communication which cut across all sphere of life is needed in organization such as schools organization; the teachers spend more of their time interacting with each other in order to achieve educational objectives. It is vital here to explain communication.
Haney (1992) defines communication as the process by which we give and receive information, signals or messages by talking, writing, listening, reading, gesturing and soon.
The act of communication is for a purpose which is directed towards persuading influencing modifying and changing behaviour of individuals. Based on these, feedback is always expected when information is passed on and such feedback will enable the teacher to know if the information was actually passed on to the students effectively or not.
Adaralegbe (1980) defines social studies as the study of how man influences and is in turn influenced by his physical, social, political, religious, economic, psychological, cultural, scientific and technological environment.
Since social studies deals with the way man influences his environment and how he is in turn influenced by his environment. Effective communication is needed for people to
understand their environment and themselves. Hence, the place of communication in teaching and learning of social studies cannot be over emphasized.
There are three basic modern principles of attention catching that the teacher needs to apply in every lesson that will make for effective communication in the teaching of Social Studies. These are: observation, interpretation, and application. (M.A.A Danjuma 2010). For instance, a teacher who takes prostitution as a topic must make sure that in defining the concept, it reflects and expresses the correct definition of prostitution. According to the Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, prostitution is the practice of engaging in sexual activity usually with individuals other than a spouse or friend in exchange for immediate payment in money or other valuables. The teacher must use the right communicative skills to arrest the interest of the leaner so as to make them learn.
Prostitution is a delicate term and concept to explain to learners; in teaching this term therefore the teacher’s communication skill must consider the age, sex, and cultural background of the learners. Students can easily imitate the language of their teacher which if not well packaged can affect the learning concept. It is based on this fact that this study is designed to investigate the impact of communication on the teaching and learning of social studies concepts.
- Statement of the Problem
In the class room, certain factors such as misinterpretation of words, wrong methodology, inadequate subject matter, influence of peer group, teachers’ attitude, communication skills and socio-cultural and economic background of the students affect effective communication. In other words, effective communication in teaching and learning can be encouraged or discouraged owing to teachers’ or students’ factors. Teachers and researchers in Social Science Education often complain about the feedback they receive on how students report their assignment and respond to examination questions.
Based on the above, the Government, Curriculum Experts and Social Studies Practitioners have made several efforts to device appropriate classroom methodology and provide adequate facilities. These steps are essential because classroom interaction is dependent on communication between the teacher and the learners. The communication skill of the teacher goes a long way in shaping the knowledge of the learners and the determining subject matter imbibed. The communication skill of the teacher must be adequate and relevant to the social-cultural background of the learners.
The questions that need to be answered therefore are:
- Are the teachers using the right communication skills?
- Are the communication skills relevant to the age of the learners?
- Are the communication skills relevant to the social and cultural background of the learners?
Hence, based on these research questions, this study is designed to investigate the impact of communication on the teaching and learning of social studies concepts in Secondary Schools in Ojo Local Education District of Lagos State.
- Purpose of study
The purpose of this study includes the following.
- To identify a conducive communicative environment for the teaching and learning of social studies concepts.
- To assess the impact of communication on the teaching and learning of social studies concepts.
- To examine the relationship between teachers’ methodology and teachers’-students’ classroom interaction.
- To examine the relationship between teacher’s mastery of subject matter and classroom interaction.
- To examine the relationship between teachers and students’ communicate skill and classroom interactions.
- Research Question
Presented below are research questions which will provide possible solutions to the problems identified.
- What is the relevance of teacher’s methodology to classroom interaction?
- What are the usefulness of students’ communicate skills to classroom interaction in the learning of social studies concepts?
- What is the relevance of teacher’s knowledge of subject matter to classroom interaction?
- What are the skills required for effective communication of social studies concepts to the learners?
- Research Hypotheses
H01: There will be no significant relationship between teachers methodology and teachers students classroom interaction.
H02: There will be no significant relationship between student’s communication ability and teachers’-students’ and students-students classroom interaction.
H03: There will be no significant relationship between the teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter and teacher- student’s classroom interaction.
- Significance of the study
This study is considered quite important in many ways and to different people. It will help to find out the extent to which the teacher’s communication skills affect effective teaching and learning of social studies concepts.
Firstly, the study will serve as a reference material for teacher on various communication strategies to enhance teaching and learning in social studies.
Secondly, it will draw the attention of teachers, school administrators and the Government to the need for providing schools with adequate tools that will enhance effective communication and enhance effective teaching and learning.
- Scope and Delimitation of the study
This research study is designed to investigate the impact of communication on the teaching and learning of social studies concepts.
The study is limited to ten selected junior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Education District of Lagos State. It involves teachers and students within the selected schools in Ojo Local Education District of Lagos state.
- Definition of terms.
Certain key words are used in this study and an attempt is made here to situate them within the context in which they were used. Such terms include the following:
Koontz, et al (1984) communication is the transfer of information from one person to another with the information being understood both by the sender and the receiver. This is the language of instruction which governs class interaction between the teacher and the learners.
Akinpelu (1981) sees teaching as a conscious and deliberate effort by a matured or experienced person to impact knowledge, information, skills, attitudes and beliefs to an in mature or less experienced person to believe what he is taught on a rational basis. This is the process of impacting basic knowledge and skills into a learner.
The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines learning as knowledge obtained by study. It refers to relatively permanent change in a behaviour potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice.
- Social studies:
Fadeiye et al (1978) define social studies as a combination of course of studies by which we learn about things that we do and things that exist around us. This is the study of man and his physical environment.
Mayers (1966) regards education as a process leading to the enlightenment of mankind in intellectual, growth, emotional, maturity, and ethnical awareness. It refers to the sum total of all the process by which a learner develops attitudes and behaviour which are of positive values to his society.
The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines a teacher as a person who teaches, especially in a school. This is an instructor who teaches or instructs a learner.
The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines classroom as a room where a class of pupils or students is taught. This is a room where a teacher or an instructor teaches his students.
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