MARITAL INSTABILITY AMONG URBAN WOMEN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THEIR CHILDREN (A CASE STUDY OF BADAGRY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
This study attempt to assess marital instability among urban women and its implications on academic achievement of their children. The researchers adopted a descriptive method survey. For hypotheses was formulated with an open ended questionnaire was employed to gather information from respondents selected randomly in four schools in Badagry Local Government. However, the data collected were collated, analyzed and subjected to chi-square statistical analysis using 0.05 as level of significant upon the result, all the formulated hypotheses was rejected and recommendations were made as well as the implication of the study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background to the Problem 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis 7
1.6 Significant of the Study 7
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study 9
1.8 Definitions of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: Review of Related Literature
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 What is Marriage 10
2.2 Concept of Marriage 12
2.2.1 The Approval and Involvement of the Families of the Spouse 14
2.2.2 Another Requirement is Bride Price or Dowry 14
2.2.3 The Third Requirements is the Religious Factor 15
2.3 Concept of Marital Instability 15
2.3.1 Status of Urban Women 17
2.4 Concept of Divorce 20
CHAPTER THREE: Methodology
3.0 Introduction 26
3.1 Types of Marriage 26
3.1.1 Monogamy Marriage 26
3.1.2 Polygamy Marriage 27
3.1.3 Polyandry Marriage 27
3.2 Causes of Marital Instability 29
3.3 Research Design 34
3.4 Population of the Study 34
3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques 35
3.6 Research Instrumentation 35
3.7 Validity of the Instrument 36
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument 36
3.9 Administration of the Instrument 36
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis
4.0 Introduction 38
4.1 Effect on Marital Instability 38
4.2 Solution to the Effect of Marital Instability towards Stability 42
4.3 Data Analysis and Presentation of Result 46
4.3.1 Respondent6s Bio-Data 46
4.3.2 Sex 47
4.3.3 Class 47
4.3.4 Parental 48
4.4 Testing of Hypothesis 49
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.0 Introduction 59
5.1 Summary 59
5.2 Conclusion 60
5.3 Implication of the Study 61
5.3 Recommendations 62
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 63
References ` 64
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The dynamic of culture and human relationships have made researchers to observe many influences, manifestations, happenings and occurrences in marriage stability within the African society. These manifestation and occurrence have significant impact on marriage within the African modern society. The impacts have been positive and negative. However, a recent observation on people attitude to marriages in African modern society, suggest an alarming negative effect of these impacts (Borgatsta and Edgor, 200). According to Gove (1986) marriage is described as the acts of being united with a person of the opposite set as husband or wife. The mutual relationship of the husband and wife, the institution whereby men and women are joined in a special kind of social and legal dependence for the purpose of founding and maintaining a family, an act of marriage or rite by which the married status is affected. From a societal level of analysis the institution of marriage represents all the behaviours, norms expectations, valves and roles that are associate with legal union of a man and woman. It is also an institution in society in which a man and woman are joined in a special kind of social and legal dependence to found and maintain family.
For people, getting married and bearing children are the principal life events that mark the passage into mature adulthood. Marriage is considered to represent a life long commitment by two people to each other and it is signified by a contract sanctioned by the state (and for, many people, by God). It thus involves legal right responsibilities, duties and obligations that are enforce by both secular and sacred low.
As a legal contract ratified by the state, permission (Borgatta and Edor, 200, Asana, 1990).
Every culture of the world recognizes some of the institutions of marriage. In most cultures, societies and religions neither man nor woman is considered complete, after reaching maturity, without a spouse. Many (societies) religions consider marriage as a sacred act that originates from God or as the union of souls or spirits with the sacred realm. Jewech beliefs trace the origin of marriage to Adam and Eve and view their union as a part of the fabric of creation.
The nuptial blessing emphasize marriage in the scheme of creation and speak of the state of marriage as paradise regained (Blesdoe, 1993; Blankenhorn, 2003), wife bartering (Olarinmoye, 1998); that these are common among the resultant effect of marriage instability in modern African society. Marriage instability has made us to currently witness the invasion of many areas of human activity by a radical individualism, economic life, excessive competition e.t.c. this individualism certainly does not encourage generous, fruitful and permanent self-giving. The economic nature of the factors that impede marriage stability made it alarming especially in African where marriage is religiously adored. This mind troubling issue has motivated the researcher to work on the topic; patterns of marriage relationship, therefore, personal characteristics that influence choice of marriage pathway, more of ten than not, influence risks of marital separation to. The researchers have consistently discovered that there is no benefit in cohabitation. Research findings over and over again indicate that couples who cohabit before marriage have a so percent higher divorce rate than those who do not (Rena, 2006). Many studies have shown that the couples who cohabit before marriage fore greater chances of discoing than the couples who do not cohabit before marriage (Amato and Booth, 1977; Stanley, whiten and marksman, 2004; Raybum, 2005). Ogunsola (2004) in his study on premarital behaviours as determinant of marital stability observer that premarital cohabitation has on positive effect on marital stability of the couples in Oyo State, Nigeria.
Further lower marital satisfaction than the non-cohabiter (Brown and Booth) (1996-2003) waited and when these cohabiter’s eventually married, they may have had an inferior relationship compared to the couple who did not consider pre-marital cohabitation necessary, causing the decline in married stability and satisfaction (Raybum,2005).
- STATAMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research work is based on marital instability among urban women specifically and its implication on academic achievement of the children. In the general society today, it is now becoming a phenomenon that instability in marriage is no longer a new thing. Instability in marriage ever in the religious levels has become something no longer surprising and new. However, this menace affects mostly rural dwellers. The largest prone people are those living in urban cities. People no longer see instability in marriage as a taboo. Instability in marriage/wedlock is celebrated among urban dwellers. It has become a thing of social belonging being unstable in marriage nowadays depicts your lings level of sociability as a lady. The canker worm not only affect the man and the woman alone, but is affects the children academic achievement and development. This is because in the long run the one affected mostly is the children as a result of breakage in the family. Urban women that are unstable in their marital lifestyles who later end up being divorced or separated from the home may before to dump her children.
The implication tends or fends to lure the children to engage in various social and dangers vices. This will force the children to become truants, hawking, streets beggars, prostitutes, non-chalet attitude, labourers and other societal ills. All this social ills are the harbinger that prompts the researcher to find solution if not totally solved at least to a minimal level.
- PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of study is to critically assess marital instability among urban women and its implications on the academic achievement of the children.
- To examine the cause of marital instability among the urban women own life
- To find out the effects of marital instability on the academic performance of the children as well as the family (women)
iii. Examine the role of marital counseling on the attitude of the women moral character.
- Assess ways of curbing marital instability for the betterment of their children
- RESEARCH QUESTION
The following are the research question for this study.
- Is there any significant relationship between marital instability and academic performance of the children?
- Is there any significant effect of marital instability and the children character on the society?
- Is there any significant relationship between poverty and marital instability?
- In there any significant difference between the academic performance of a child from stable family and unstable family?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
- There is no significant relationship between marital instability and poor academic performance of the children.
- There is no significant effect of marital instability and the children character in the society.
iii. There are no significant differences between the academic performance of a child from stable family and unstable family.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study would not be overemphasized to make necessary corrections to the causes and likely implication on the students as well as the society.
The issue of divorce has been highly traumatic. Therefore, the researcher has set out the issue, by so doing the evils (if there is any) in the upbringing of children on such home i.e. exposed and it’s short as long-term implication on students would be revealed both the presents and parents to be would get to know how to really guide the future of their offspring.
The researcher findings at the sometime will assist educational authorities and government in having an insight into the numerous problems being faced the students from destabilized homes and supply the various need affections. Also, the guidance counselor would through the findings of this research have their problem lessoned and be able to serve a confidents to such student.
Therefore, it is the goal of the study will contribute to the understanding and betterment as well as building a better future generation in order to have a peace and harmony society.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will cover some selected schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
This study will be limited to only marital issues in the Ogu community.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Marriage: This is the coming together of two different/opposite mature male and female into one matrimony.
Instability: This is unsteadily, wavering, flux, shakiness in course.
Academic: This is an act of educational intellectual, scholarly, been scholarly include learning institution.
Achievement: This is attributed to attainment accomplishment, success and triumph
Children: These are kids, broods, offspring, family kids.
Urban Women: These are city women, town, metropolitan ladies, matured females
Implication: The effect, outcome of a course
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