LEADERSHIP AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A STUDY OF BADAGRY LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
This research work “leadership as an effective tool for organizational productivity” evaluates leadership as an effective tool in achieving organizational productivity. The research work was carried out in Badagry to examine how leadership can influence and improve the productivity of the organization, considering the leadership style, the environmental factors and the subordinates in achieving set goals. To ascertain this, the primary and secondary sources were used in gathering fac6t for the study. The secondary source3s were derived from the text books, journal etc. while the primary source was through a designed questionnaire stating some question for respondent to express their feelings and provide some basic fact on the question provided. A sample of one twenty (120) questionnaires were distributed and retrieved by the researcher, while the simple percentage method was adopted in analyzing the data collected. The result of this research shows that le3adership is inevitable in any organization without a leader is like sheep without shepherd. The conclusion of this study proves that every organization is expected to have a leader who can adopt the different leadership styles at the appropriate time and consider both environment and subordinate in achieving maximum productivity in an organization.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
- Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of Problems 9
1.2 Objectives of the Study 11
1.3 Research Questions 11
1.4 Research Hypotheses 12
1.5 Significance of the Study 13
1.6 Scope/Limitation of the Study 14
1.7 Definitions of Terms 15
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of the Concept 20
2.2 Leaders’ Power and the
Services of Power 24
2.3 Sources of Power 25
2.4 Basic Factors of Leadership 27
2.5 Types of Leaders 30
2.6 Theories of Leadership 33
2.7 Leadership Behavioural Styles and its
Implications on the Organizational
Efficiency and Effectiveness. 34
2.8 Effective Leader 42
2.9 Chairmanship 45
2.10 The History of Badagry Local Government 46
2.11 Names and Years of Badagry Chairman Till Date 50
2.12 The Achievement of Badagry Local GovernmentUnder the Leadership of Hon. Husitode Moses Dosu 52
2.13 Qualities and Attributes of a Letter 53
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 56
3.2 Population 56
3.3. Sample and Sampling Procedure 57
3.4 Research Instrument 57
3.5 Validity of Instrument 58
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 59
3.7 Method of Data Collection 60
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 61
4.1 Data Analysis Interpretation and
Discussion of Results 62
4.2 Analysis on the Personal Data of the Respondents 63
4.3 Analysis of the Hypothesis 69
4.4 Discussion of Results. 81
4.5 Consideration and Initiating Structure 83
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINIDINGS CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
5.1 Summary 86
5.2 Conclusion 89
5.3 Recommendations 91
Leadership becomes so much necessary as there is need for people to come together as a group. No organization can exist without planning, coordination and control even to our respective homes. The organization as well will exist in order to achieve a particular goal or objective. Hence necessitate the need for machineries that will be driven towards the organizational productivity.
For an organization to be productive or effective there must be a leader who has all that it takes to make the organization productive. A leader in an organization is a major determinant of the success or failure of the organization.
Thus, the planning, controlling, coordination etc. of both materials and human resources in any corporative organization are well managed by the leader of such organization. As such, if the resources are not well managed, and information or instruction can not succeed but rather encounter a lot of problems or failure.
Although, leadership style does not necessarily mean instruction or directive at times, but by influencing others towards the attainment of goals. Most organization today are been productive because of the kind of management they have which could be regarded as the leadership style.
It must be noted that, there are different types of leaders. The leadership style is also one of the major factors that determine the productivity of an organization.
An organization will be effective if it possesses the best leadership style, which will enable the organization to maintain an optimum productivity. Having many human and material resources, is not a success to any organization, but, it is just an attempt. This is because there is a tendency for the law of diminishing returns to set on such organization if it is not well managed and given the most adequate attentions.
There is no doubt about it that in most local governments today, that rare some problems that arise as a result of the poor, bad and incompetent leaders.
The executives are not so much concerned about the aims and objectives, of the local government, but rather see that position as a means to wealth, what a bad leaders. The few ones who are driven towards the objectives of the local government are seen successful and productive.
The central role of a leader in organizational productivity and development has been recognized by many theorists. (Walker 1976); (Levine and White 1961); (Arnold and Ejiofor 11984); (Bennis and Goldsmith 1997); Heresy and Blanchard (1996) have observed that “the successful organization has one major attribute that sets it apart from the unsuccessful organization.
The spirit of leadership crisis is alarming and perceived the change in leadership at most of our respective corporations, institution, such as Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), Nigeria Airways, Higher Institution of learning (universities and colleges) and even local government etc.
Leadership is one of the most common characteristics of all species of the animal kingdom. Whenever any of the species is in a group, a leader often emerges. The leader in the group is the one that determines the group activities.
Nevertheless, there is a death of effective leadership which partly account for a sub-optimization of the objective function of most institutional organization.
Thus, when we decry the scarcity of leadership talent in our society, we are not talking about lack of people to fill administrative positions. What we are agonizing over is a scarcity of people who re willing to assume significant leadership roles in our society and who can get the job done effectively.
Leadership is making important organizational concept with far reaching implication for organizational productivity. The success or failure of any organization depends on the leader who is accountable for his activities to many constituencies.
Leadership, in most organization encompasses the full range of managerial responsibilities including planning decision making, communication, controlling and conflict management etc Nwangwu et’al (2004). Indeed, change in leadership usually generates a lot of interests because leadership is one of the most popular explanations for the success or failure of organizations.
The big questions naturally arise here are, what is leadership and how does leadership affect the productivity of an organization? The advance learner Dictionary defines leader as follows. A person who led a group of people, especially the head of a country and organization, etc.
Leadership, the state or position of being a leader, the ability to be a leader or the qualities a good leader should have. A leadership is a forerunners fior others to follows. This being the case, his imperative that leadership has to be visionary that is having the end in sight. Leadership, according to depree (1989) is about the art of liberating people to do what is required of them in most effective and human way possible.
This presupposes that, leadership is g where no one has gone before. Therefore, a leader like a coach or a teacher performs that art painstakingly carefully putting the follows through in order to navigate them from the unknown to the known.
Leadership style is therefore, an institutional indebtedness. Leadership owns an institution laws, stewardship and accountability, asserts, legacy, momentum, effectiveness, activity and values in any given organization. Leadership style owes the organizational institution contented and happy employees, employees who are always forward to efficiency and effectiveness in their duties and who are imbued with a high sense of commitment.
From the above explanation, it is quite clear that leadership poses certain qualities and behavior which has a positive impact in the organizational efficiency and work at best as a coordinator of internal and external group pressures, his or her response to this pressure must not be divergent top organizational goal and objectives, otherwise this may lead to crises.
At this juncture, there is the need to reiterate that the effectiveness and success of any Administration all levels of local government to large extent must depend on the quality of leadership vis-avis leadership style. Bernard A. shift and Kenneth E. Eurald considered the following basic princip0les or attributes crucial to leadership and as having universal applications which brought to highlight the noticeable influence of leadership style on organizational efficiency (Shift and Eurald 1979:39). This attributes are basically intelligence, objectivity and good judgment, personal integrity, courage and self confidence and personal stability.
Having started the above, it is important to mention the leader style adopted by the local government in Badagry.
- The autocratic leadership or authoritarian
- Democratic leadership
- Laissez-fare leadership
However their effect will be dealt with.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The process of leadership involves from important elements. That is the leader as a person, the goal or objective of the organization, the followers or employees and setting the leaders personality, the nature of the organizational task that is, the work the personalities and need dispositions of the followers and the environment in which the organization operates are all factors that affects the efficiency and effectiveness of the leaders. This suggests that no one leadership style can be sufficient in achieving organizational efficiency and productivity. The need to implore the most effective and efficient leadership in any given organization (local government, hospitals, schools etc) is disputable. The relative superiority of democratic leadership style over the autocratic leadership style has been widely acknowledge in literature. What is perhaps doubtful is whether the political leaders are aware about the effect of their personal self on the organizational productivity.
It has been conspicuous in some organization that despite their huge capital used in setting up companies or business they still fail in productivity. Another major problem is that, some leaders are not even aware of the implication of their position as the determinant. Thus, the situation or the environment of the organization and subordinates are taken cognizance of, but only the leadership is been pay attention to.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are based on
- To ascertain the effects of leadership on the organizational productivity.
- To really show that no organization can be productive without a good leader.
- To examine the effect of leadership in achieving organizational goals.
- To assist organizations in building up a progressive leadership style.
- To suggest ways and admonitions for organizational leadership.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following question are raised for the purpose of the study
- Is there any significant relationship between leadership and organizational productivity?
- Does leadership influence the objectives of an organization?
- Does the productivity success and failure of any organization depend on leadership?
- Would the behavior of the leader increase in the organization efficiency?
- Does involvement of workers in the decision making process by the leader promotes organizational productivity?
- What is leaders and leadership style, does it have any significant impact on the organizational efficiency.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The statement of hypotheses is as follows:
- There is no significant relationship between leadership and organization.
- The role of leadership in organization is less important.
- Leadership is not an effective tool in organizational productivity.
- The failure and success of an organization does not really depend on the leadership style
- The leadership fails while the organizational succeeds.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this study will produce basis for the explanation of the importance, usefulness and the effects of leadership on any given organization. The result will be useful to leaders local government or government officials and policy maker on how to manage an organization. It is also relived that the findings of this study will provoke further research on leadership and its effects on organizational productivity or efficiency.
1.6 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the research project is limited in both subject and area of courage
- The subject of the study is leadership as an effective tool for organizational productivity, so, it is purposely designed to assess the impact of leadership in organizational productivity in Badagry local government.
- The research is restricted to public sector or government organization, specifically in Badagry Area of Lagos State.
- This research work encounter a lot of constrain in carry out the necessary findings the time which the project is expected to be submitted is very limited, the financial factor and source of information are also major limitation is achieving an accurate result.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The terms used in this research are:
Leadership: This can be simply said to be the act of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal.
Organization: This is a business set up by an individual; government or group of people towards a particular goal.
Tool: An instrument used in achieving a goal.
Effectiveness: Producing the result that is needed or expected to yield a successful result.
Efficiency: The quality of doing something well with no waste of time or money.
Productivity: The ability of an organization to attain its goals or target.
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