POLICY BASED STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING READING CULTURE AT THE PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL (A CASE OF FOUR SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
This project examines the policy based strategies for developing a reading culture at the primary school level. The study adopted a descriptive survey design, and the instrument used for collecting data was an interview questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed in simple percentages. The study revealed some policy-based strategies for developing a reading culture at the primary school level. The study recommended, among others, that there should be training for teachers and rewards for pupils that read well to equip and motivate them to get better at reading and to build a culture of it.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content vii-ix
Chapter One: Background to the Study
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background to the Study 1-3
1.3 Statement of the Problem 3-4
1.4 Purpose of Study 4
1.5 Research Question 4-5
1.6 Research Hypotheses 5
1.7 Scope of Study 5
1.8 Limitations 6
1.9 Significance of Study 6-7
1.10 Definition of Terms 7-9
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Conceptual Definitions of Language 10-11
2.2 Language Skills 11-15
2.3 Reading 15-19
2.4.1 Purpose of Reading 19-20
2.4.2 Models of Reading 20-24
2.5 Types of Reading 24-29
2.6 Reading Skills 29-30
2.7 Reading Culture 30-31
2.8 Basic Education in Nigeria 31-32
2.9 Objective of the UBE 32-33
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.0 Introduction 34
3.1 Research Design 34-35
3.2 Population of study 35
3.3 Sample and Sampling techniques 35
3.4 Research Instrument and Instrumentation 36
3.5 Validity of the instrument 36
3.6 Reliability of the instrument 36
3.7 Method of Data collection 36-37
3.8 Data analysis 37
Chapter Four: Data presentation, Analysis of Finding
4.0 Introduction 38
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of
Respondents Bio data 38-46
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations
5.1 Summary 47-48
5.2 Conclusion 48-49
5.3 Recommendations 49-52
Reading is a generally acknowledged effective means of gaining knowledge. Yet, many scholars have observed the lack of interest in reading among students, who studied why the reading culture is practically dying. However, little or no focus has been channeled towards finding out schools based strategies and policies statement geared towards improving the reading culture of pupils. This research, therefore, aims at finding out school strategies for improving reading culture in primary school—pupils in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.2 Background to the study
Sankoe (1999) explained that people preferred conversing rather than reading. He emphasized that traditional educators were great narrators of stories that they said aloud and accompanied with dramatization and demonstrations—this explained pupil failure to engage in reading. Most of them came from a background where stories were told to them verbally rather than having to read these stories. Further, books and libraries are often seen as redundant in such societies; people stop reading once formal education is completed as “they drive more pleasure from the oral and the performing arts like talking, singing dancing socializing than from the private and individual reading of a book. Since the majority are illiterate, they affect the minority who can read, with the result that oral mode remains prevalent” (Totemeyer, 1994).
The poor reading culture in Ojo’s local government area has led to an undeveloped book industry, which is characterized by inadequacy of the availability of reading materials. In addition, a poor reading culture affects many of Africa’s social and economic development (Mulidiwa, 2001).
Ojo local government has, from time to time, attempted to address reading as an important aspect of the education system in schools in Lagos state. This arose from the fact that these pupils were reading less and concentrated on reading prescribed textbooks to pass an examination, a situation that has created poor reading habits, poor language coordination and expression, poor academic performance, and that has hampered the pupil creativity in various aspects of life. However, literacy should be considered as learning to read and write; in the study context, emphasis is put on reading. This situation also affects pupils in UBE schools due to a lack of positive reading skills and a reading culture during their formative years.
The other factors that affect reading in schools include the nature of the general physical facilities at home and schools, parents’ attitude towards reading, and an examination but never engage in pleasure reading. The absence of a strategy to guild reading habits among UBE pupils limits the development of a reading culture in UBE schools. It is important to analyze the current state of reading among pupils to develop strategies that will help them develop a reading culture.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Reading is essential for effective education, especially in language. A good reading culture is therefore inevitable in teaching and learning. However, the reality generally supports a collapse in reading culture among students, implying the need for a holistic approach to solving problems. Given this, the present research is designed to investigate the policy strategies of selected primary school administrations in improving the reading culture among pupils of their primary schools.
1.4 Purpose of the Study
This study is designed to determine the policy-based strategies employed by schools to develop a reading culture among primary pupils. The research is thus aimed at achieving the following specific purposes:
- To determine if the school employs policy-based strategies to improve preceding culture among primary school pupils.
- To assess the degree of implementation of the strategies.
- To find out the extent of success of the strategies.
1.5 Research Question
- Are there policy-based strategies schools employ to improve processing culture among primary school pupils?
- To what extent are the strategies implemented?
- How successful have the strategies been in improving the reading culture among pupils?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
- Schools employ no policy-based strategies to improve reading culture among primary school pupils
- There is no degree of implementation of the policies in school
- There are no successful extent with the strategies in improving the reading culture of pupils
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covered the reading culture of pupils in primary schools in the Ojo local government area in terms of the term of their reading practices adopted based on the education system the schools follow. The study covers strategies for developing a reading culture in primary schools in Lagos state. Four primary schools within Ojo
Local Government areas were selected to conduct the study about the reading culture among pupils.
The respondents often confused non-textbook reading materials with textbooks, and the researcher spent a great deal of time clarifying these differences. These reduced the total amount of time available for her research activities.
The researcher needed funds to carry out the study, analyze the data and compile and present the most appropriate. The researcher looked for funding to carry out the necessary research-related activities.
Teachers pre-arranged the reading lessons at some schools according to the timing research. Yet, in their daily instruction schedule, reading was not given a priority. The researcher followed up with the pupils out of class through interviewing, which they admitted was not.
1.9 Significance of the Study
The study will explain how policymakers and teachers can encourage pupils to make reading a habit to develop a good reading culture.
The study will guide how reading practices from schools with different curricula could be implemented in primary to help create a strong reading culture.
The research will provide a wealth of knowledge on how the teacher can guide pupils to read. It is hoped that he will create awareness among the pupils and teachers about the importance of reading in order for them to be more knowledgeable and acquire a love for reading.
Furthermore, the study will be a source of literature review by those intending to research further the problem being studied. The study will be consulted on other topics to research reading culture to acquire facts about the reading practices in primary schools in Ojo’s local government area.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Reading: According to the Inlorld Book Encydopedia (1994), reading is the act of getting meaning from printed or written word. According to Sentawa (2004), reading is a learning skill that aids all other activities.
Reading Culture: Developing a reading culture is an instrument for acquiring lifelong learning, as noted by Mack Enzie (2004) and cited by Magara and Batambuze (2005). This requires recognizing, accessing, evaluating, and utilizing information in the available literature or information materials. This ability to read and write alone cannot lead to reading culture.
Reading must play a significant role in a person’s day-to-day life and become a habit or order to constitute a reading culture. In the context of the study, I was reading culture. In the study context, reading culture refers to a way of life characterized by the habit of reading intensively and extensively.
Literacy: refers to the ability to read and write.
Oral society: The study refers to people who prefer narrating or listening to stories delivered by word of mouth through talking and accompanied by demonstrations.
Pupil: in the study, a child of school-going age attending primary one to primary six.
UBE: Universal Basic Education is the policy adopted by the Nigerian Government to ensure universal access to primary education by all children of school-going age.