AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF CURRICULUM IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS SUBJECTS (A CASE STUDY OF OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
The research work “an investigation into the effect of curriculum in the teaching and learning of business subjects” was carried out to investigate the effect of curriculum in teaching and learning of business subject in some selected secondary school. Different opinions of people on various aspect of study were examined through questionnaire. One hundred and twenty (120).respondent were used who were randomly selected from three (3) schools in Ojo local government area of Lagos State. Whereby simple percentage was used to analyze demographic data and chi-square (x2) method was adopted to test the formulated hypothesis at 0.50 alpha levels. The findings of the study revealed that learners need to be guided and enlightened on how important and useful of business subject is to the and how they can get it and use it right, based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that seminar/workshop will help enlighten and encourage the students to know the importance and usefulness of business subjects.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vii
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background to the study 11
1.3 Statement of problem 19
1.4 Purpose of the study 20
1.5 Significance of the study 20
1.6 Research Questions 22
1.7 Research Hypotheses 22
1.8 Scope of the study 23
1.9 Delimitation of the study 23
1.10 Definition of terms 24
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2.0 Introduction 25
- Need and interest of the students 28
- Learners ability 29
- Provision for wide range of objectives 31
- Durability and lasting quality 33
- The status of teachers in education 34
- Physical action and experience 35
- Learning as a social activity 37
- Effect of Curriculum on Teaching and Learning 42
- Explicit and Implicit Curricula. 44
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design 54
3.2 Population of the Study 54
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 54
3.4 Research Instrument 55
3.5 Validity of Instrument 56
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 56
3.7 Method of data collection 56
3.8 Data Analysis 57
CHAPTER FOUR: Presentation of Data Analysis
4.0 Introduction 58
4.1 Procedure for analysis 59
4.2 Discussion of findings 67
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary 69
5.2 Conclusion 71
5.3 Recommendations 72
5.4 Limitation of the study 73
According to Nicholls and Nichols, (1972) the process of curriculum consist of a continuous cycle of activities relating to consideration of elements in the curriculum and their interrelatedness.
It is also defined by Bangboye (1971) as a planned sequence of learning experience designed to create a set of specific behavioral change for students within a given learning environment.
Also Gwynn define curriculum as all experience which children have under the administration of the school.
It is also defined as all institution that the school select and country organized for the purpose of bringing about changes in the behavior of the pupils.
The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academics content taught in a school or a specific course or programs, in oxford dictionary, curriculum is often defined as the course offered by a school but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools. Depending on the how broadly educators defined or employ the term, curriculum typically refers to the knowledge and skills students are expected to learn, which includes the learning standards or learning objectives they are expected to meet the units and lessons that teachers teach; the assignments and projects given to the students, the books, materials, videos presentation, assessments and other methods used to evaluate students learning.
1.1 Background to the study
The earliest school was established by the missionaries in West Africa for the instruction of children New converts so that they might be able to read the word of God, to write and to do simple arithmetic in order to teach others.
At this time the European teachers and government department needed a clerk and an interpreter, because of this, the school trained children in this capacity pupils where taught to be clerks and teachers. The subject of curriculum then was based the (3RS) reading, writing and arithmetic’s, religion knowledge was also included. Pupils learnt vernacular and English language. Later the subject matter was increased in order to fulfill the proper aims of education expanding the subject taught in the school.
There are a lot of differences between the old and new curriculum. In the old curriculum, The subjects were on just child’s play or mere bread and butter materials, they did not make provision for an all round development of the children who came to school. The subject taught in the school were inadequate, not sufficient and not effective. There is nothing like physical and health education and pupils are not trained to appreciate handwork/hand made things. The new curriculum takes the subjects taught to be beneficiary to the children’s welfare because it gives room for all round development of children. The subjects taught are adequate because children are trained to appreciate handwork by doing crafts, drawing and other handwork and it also make them to have confidence in themselves and be self dependence.
The terms curriculum or curricula are used in educational context without qualification, specific examples or additional explanation, it may be difficult to determine precisely what the terms are referring to-mainly because they could be applied to other all or only some of the component parts of a school’s academic program or courses.
In many cases teachers develop their own curriculum often retaining and improving them over years, although it is also common for teachers to adapt lesson and syllabi created by other teachers, use curriculum templates and guides to structure their lesson and courses or purchase prepackage curriculum from individuals and companies. In some cases, schools purchase comprehensive, multigame curriculum packages often in a particular subject area, such as business studies commerce and financial accounting and mathematics- that teachers are required to use or follow. Curriculum may also encompass a school’s academic requirements for graduation, such as the courses student have to take and pass, the number of credits students must complete, and other requirement such as completing a capstone project or a certain number of community- service hours. Generally speaking, curriculum takes many different forms in schools too many to comprehensively catalog here.
It is important to note the while curriculum encompasses a wide variety of potential educational and instructional practices, educators often have a very precise, technical meaning in mind when they use the term. Most teachers spend a lot of time thinking about studying discussing and analyzing curriculum, and many educators have acquired a specialist expertise in curriculum development i.e. they know how to structure, organize and deliver lesson in ways that facilitate or accelerate student learning to non educators, some curriculum materials may seem simple or straightforward ( such as a list of required reading) but they may reflect a deep and sophisticated understanding of and academic discipline and of the most effective strategies for learning acquisition and classroom management.
For a related discussion, see hidden curriculum reform.
Sin curriculum is one of the fundamental elements of effective schooling and teaching it is often the object of reforms, most of which are broadly intended to either mandate or encourage greater curricular standardization and consistency across. State schools grade levels, Subject areas and courses the following are a few representative examples of the ways in which curriculum is targeted for improvement or use to leverage school improvement and increase teacher effectiveness.
Standard requirements: when new learning standards are adopted at the state district or school levels, teachers typically modify what they teach and bring their curriculum into “alignment “with the learning expectations outlined in the new standards while the technical alignment of curriculum with standards does not necessarily mean that teachers are teaching in accordance with the standard or more to the point ,that students are actually achieving these learning expectation- learning standards remain a mechanism by which policy makers and school leaders attempt to improve curriculum and teaching quality the common core state standards initiative example, is a national effort to influence curriculum design and teaching quality in schools through the adoption of new learning standard by states.
Assessment Requirement:-Another reform strategy that indirectly influences curriculum is assessment, since the methods use to measure student learning compel teachers to teach the content and skills that will eventually be evaluated. The most commonly discussed examples are standardized testing and high stakes testing, which can give rise to a phenomenon informally called “teaching to the test”. Because federal and state policies requires students to take standardized test at certain grade levels and because regulatory penalties or negatives publicity may result from poor students performance.(in the case of high stakes tests ) teachers are consequently under pressures to teach in ways that are likely to improve students performance on standardized tests e.g. by teaching the content likely to be taking techniques, while standardized test are ways in which assessment is use to leverage curriculum reform schools may also use rubies and many other strategies to improve teaching qualify through the modification of assessment, strategies requirements and expectations.
Curriculum Alignment:-schools may try to improve curriculum quality by bringing teaching activities and course expectations into “alignment “with learning standards and other school courses. A practice sometimes called “curriculum mapping”. The basic idea is to create a more consistent and coherent academic program by making sure that teacher teach the most important content and eliminate learning gaps that may exist between segmental courses and grade levels. For examples teachers may review their entrepreneurship programs.
Curriculum Resources:-The resources that schools provide to teachers can also have a significant effect on curriculum for example, if a district or school purchases a certain set of those textbook and requires teachers to use the those textbooks will inevitably influence what get taught and how teachers teach. Technology purchase are another example of resources that have the potential to influence curriculum if all students are given laptops and all classrooms are out fitted with interactive white boards, for examples, teachers can make significant changes in what they teach and how they teach to take advantage of those new technologies (for a more detailed discussion of this examples, see one -to -one).In most cases, however, new curriculum resources require schools invest in professional development that helps teachers use the new resources effectively given that simply providing new resources without investing in teacher about designed improvement in addition, the type of professional development provided to teachers can also have major influence one curriculum development and design.
1.3 Statement of Problem
Despite the fact that so many people have failed to identify the usefulness of curriculum towards improving teaching and learning, and have also failed to identify its importance to the general populace, therefore, this project will focus its attention by using some selected schools in Lagos State as a case study.
1.4 Purpose of the study
This study is concerned with the following purpose.
- To find out the effect of curriculum in teaching and learning of business subjects.
- To discover whether the learning experience help to meet the evidence needed of the students.
- To find out if students are likely to be interest in the experience acquired.
- To discover whether the experience seems real.
1.5 Significance of the study
For the fact that curriculum have a greater effect on teaching and learning of business subjects geared the researcher towards this study.
The result of the study especially the suggestion, and recommendation will be of beneficiary to two groups.
Firstly to the government, generally in imparting the secondary school in the states for good achievement of basic education system aimed at in the national policy on education.
Secondly, this research will also help to improve the quality and quantity of teachers and their teaching experiences into the students, it will enable them to impact into the students life, knowledge and moral. It will also go further in providing solutions to the problem of unemployment in the state by turning out qualified business students, as teachers, businessmen, sole proprietors, typist etc. this will also contribute to the National Economy Development and it will also boost the students having professional skills that they can learn from their secondary education to university level.
1.6 Research Questions
The following will be research question for this study.
- How validity of a curriculum content affect teaching and learning of business subject.
- How needs and interest of students affect the teaching and learning experience?
- Can attribute, behavior and of learner effect the teaching of business subjects?
- How can the durability and quality of content and element have any effect on teaching and learning of business subject?
- Can the significance of the content be useful to the learner?
1.7 Research Hypotheses
- There will be no significant difference if the validity of the content is ascertained
- There will be significant effect on learner’s ability and teaching and learning of business subjects
- There will be significant effect on the wide range of objective to achieve by the students and learning business subjects
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study will be concentrated on an investigation on the effect of curriculum on teaching and learning of business subjects. Therefore, the scope will be limited to some selected senior secondary schools in Agege, Oto and Ijanikin
1.9 Delimitation of the study
As a result of fund, limited time being part of the factor considered. This study will not be generalized on what is obtained on other school based on information received.
1.10 Definition of Terms
It is necessary to explain some of the words, term clauses used in this project for clarity.
The following terms among others are contained in this project.
Education: Can be defined as the process or act of passing knowledge from the knowledgeable to the unknowledgeable. It can also be defined as a process of living and not a preparation for future living.
Curriculum: It can also be defined as a process of determining or pursuing a set of societal goal or objectives through the instrumentality of the school.
Teaching: It’s the process of impacting knowledge and moral into the learner
Learning: It is a change in behavioral that depends on special conditions of a situation
Experience: Its the set of actual experience that individual learner can programme education.
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