A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONVENTIONAL TEACHING METHODS AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI)
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of Content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Purpose of study 5
1.4 Significant of study 5
1.5 Research Questions 6
1.6 Research Hypotheses 6
1.7 Scope of study 7
1.8 Limitation of study 8
1.9 Definition of Terms 9
2.0 Literature Review 10
2.1 Factor to Be Consider In Using A Teaching Method 11
2.2 Types of Teaching Methods for Computer Science 15
2.3 Definitions of Computer 27
2.4 Brief History Development of Computer System 28
2.5 Use Of Computer In Education 30
3.0 Research Methodology 36
3.1 Research Design 36
3.2 Population 36
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 36
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 37
3.5 Validation of Instrument 37
3.6 Reliability of Instrument 38
3.7 Method of Data Collection 38
3.8. Method of Data Analysis 38
4.0 Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings 39
4.1 Presentation and Analysis 39
4.2 Discussion of Findings 44
5.0 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 46
5.1 Summary 46
5.2 Conclusion 47
5.3 Recommendation 48
The project was carried out to compare the conventional teaching methods and Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Schools. In the study, some questionnaire was constructed and administered based on the research hypotheses. Data was collected using random sampling techniques. Hence, this work compared conventional study teaching and Computer-Assisted Instruction in some selected secondary in Ifako/Ijaiye Local Government. The study was based on a collection of data and its analysis and formulated two hypotheses. The first examines the relationship between Computer-Assisted Instruction and student academic performance.
1.1 Background to the study
Education as a process has been taught as one of its parts, and it is as old as man. Its main business is to develop individual stalls, competencies and intellectual capabilities, enabling them to live effectively in a complex society like Nigeria. Teaching aids learning, which results in a change in an individual’s behaviour. Teaching can be regarded as the organization of learning. The problem of successful teaching is to organize for the authentic result (2007) to them (Sadiku S.O and Ogidan E.M).
A teacher should be judged by the result that last cons and which a learner can use in his life. The result of good teaching should therefore enter the learners’ personality, shape their mental development, affect their thinking and influence their actions. Good teaching is democratic. Hence, the teacher needs to provide for individual differences in the classroom.
Success in teaching depends largely on the teacher’s ability to provide positive reinforcement, maintain appropriate discipline, inspire Interest in the subject matter, present an existing and challenging lesson, use appropriate logical diction and a pleasant tone of voice, and exhibit warmth and humour provide a bright and cheerful classroom.
Therefore, the primary task of a teacher is to teach, so the question now is how do we measure the effectiveness of a teacher concerning the dissemination of knowledge? A needless say is not to judge effectively if he merely carries in his mental luggage a mass of theoretical information about the content of the subject matter. Rather, it should be considered that learning is produced if it can convey information, ideas, and knowledge to learners effectively. Although processing a mastery of the content is one of them.
How is it taught to achieve the stated objective is most crucial? The means adopted by a teacher to transfer knowledge to the learner is known as a method; the contemporary classroom teacher is adequately equipped with a variety of teaching methods to enable him to achieve his pedagogical objectives. Given the abundance surplus of the method, a teacher is faced with the problem of choice. The fact is that a teacher’s method is influenced by a member of the variable, which makes it mandatory for a teacher to weigh carefully the relative strength and weaknesses of the various methods adopted in a lesson.
In the most appropriate teaching method for a particular topic, a teacher must take into cognizance several factors. Prominent among these, according to Oladipo (2002), are the nature of the learner, the nature of the subject, the objective of the lesson, the timing of the lesson, the environment of setting, the teacher’s performance, the availability of equipment with the view above, the researcher sought to work at these various teaching methods that are considered conventional and the new scientific method of teaching that is associated with the use of a computer. The nature of education as a subject or discipline is dynamic, and it has to do with the latest teaching method, despite using computers for information in a discrete subject for quite some time now. Its application to education instruction has not been adequately encouraged since the advent of education about centuries ago in the western world. It has begun to spread to other parts of the world, especially Africa, which called for a new method of instruction. Therefore, the project method (activities method) where children were no longer passive receivers of fact but looking up and engrossing themselves in discovery and busy activities were advocated.
However, in Nigeria, emphasis was placed on innovative instructional strategies, including the inquiry method, a problem-solving method, stimulation games, dramatization, discussion, creative activities methods, value clarification method, public controversial issue method, and exposing method.
Furthermore, computer instruction or programmed instruction has been around for a long time, but not many (Nigerian) educators have been educated for these innovative strategies to be employed in the educational system.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is believed that the current teaching method in the educational system does not provide meaningful and effective cognitive learning. The various curricular innovations that have been used in most disciplines need to be explored in the educational system.
Besides, many investigations have been carried out on teaching and learning methodology. This question arises about the appropriate teaching method that a teacher uses to be effective and make learning meaningful to the learners. The fact remains that no methodology is not good, but it all depends on the teacher to adopt such that will be helpful in his teaching and make such learning meaningful to the student, making them work at their own pace.
To this end, it is expected that a comparative study is needed to find out if there is any relationship between the use of this conventional teaching method in our educational system and the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). Since the computer has taken over all spheres of life, including education, it is expected that computer usage in the educational system will help improve our educational system.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study combined conventional teaching methods and Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) to achieve the following goals.
i. To determine the impact of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on students’ academic performance.
ii. To determine the difference in the sex of students in the usage of Computer Assisted Instruction.
iii. To determine the contribution of computer-assisted instruction in the effective teaching and learning process.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions were asked:
i. Is there any significant relationship between the usage of computer-assisted instruction and student academic performance?
ii. Is there any significant relationship between males and females taught with Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses shall be considered for this study:
i. There will be no significant relationship between the usage of computer-assisted instruction and student academic performance.
ii. There will be no significant relationship between males and females taught with Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI).
1.6 Significance of the Study
The careful selection and skilful use of the conventional methods and Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) are imperative to effective teaching and learning at our secondary school level. This underscores the importance of methods of teaching and CAI in the teaching process.
This research will assist government primary and secondary schools administrators with the hope of achieving sustainability in school, improving the method of teaching in the educational system and retiring of trained workforce for encouragement – at the secondary school level; in addition, it will:
i. Create awareness on the part of the teacher that teaching and learning activities – in the classroom can be effectively enhanced by adopting the right and appropriate teaching method.
i. Enable the student to enhance the right attitude towards several aspects of schooling in computer-assisted instructions.
ii. Enable the curriculum planner and developers to assist teachers in improving their teaching method programme through computer-assisted instruction. This is necessary since the effectiveness of the curriculum lies largely in the ability it is being used.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The research finding has some limitations that affect covering a wide scope. These include:-
i. The topic can only be carried out in local schools due to the extensive nature of the state in which it is undertaken.
ii. Most computer trains are being handled by non-professional individuals who are not capable of training the trainees.
iii. It is only limited to only primary school and junior secondary school.
iv. Time is another constraint; the research will be limited to some schools to save time.
However, the limitation notwithstanding, it is hoped that the study’s findings will be easier for both the teacher and the pupils to adjust where needed.
The individual difference in student and family background may also influence the result of the study; therefore, the writing is based on the available textbooks in the libraries, oral interviews and personal experiences during the teaching practice exercise.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This project covers the various teaching methods and Computer-Assisted Instruction in some selected secondary schools since various teaching methods from part of teaching and learning situations. It is an aspect that the researcher is familiar with, but because of the time constraint and financial handicap, the study is limited to selected schools in Ifako-Ajayi Local Government Educational District of Lagos State.
1.9 Definition of Terms
The following terms are used in research work:
Method – is defined as an overall strategy, processes, means and techniques employed by a teacher to enable him to achieve his objectives.
Method of teaching – refers to the instructional strategies designed and adopted by the teacher to facilitate teaching on his part and the part of the student.
Computer Managed Instruction – refers to organizing student data and making instructional decisions or activities in which the computer evaluates student test performance guides them to appropriate instructional resources, and records their process.
The learning process – can be interpreted to mean changes in behaviour (knowledge, skills, habits, thoughts, sentiments) brought about through interaction with the environment.
Computer-Based instruction – are the broadest term and refers to eventually any computer used in an educational setting, including drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, instructional management, supplementary exercises, programming, date development, and writing using word processors and applications.