WOMEN EDUCATION AND NIGERIA EDUCATIONAL POLICY
The research study “women education and Nigeria educational policy” reviews the various challenges encountered by women on Nigeria Educational system. Hence, this study revolves round five chapters, where chapter one which is introduction provides clear cut information on what education is all about and history of women’s participation in education in Nigeria before, during and after the independence in 1960. It also analyses the plight of women’s education in Nigeria in such that provisions for improving women participation had to be made in the Nigeria National Policy of Education section 3, paragraph II of the National Policy and also states the research problems and objectives, the study to attempt to attain by providing answers to the research questions. Consequently, chapter two centers on literature reviews of other scholars and authors concerning the topic which emphasizes on women and education in Nigeria, women and work, contributions of educated women in National Development and others. However, chapter three dealt with its research methodology for the study, where the study is sampled, research instrument, the administration of its research and method of data analysis. While chapter four is based on presentation of data and interpretation of data analysis, how data were collected and the results of the collected data were discussed. Finally, chapter five mainly focused on findings of the study and pave way for recommendations and its bibliography as well as its conclusion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background of the study
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Research Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.7 Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Overview of women education
2.1 Theoretical framework
2.2 Women and education in Nigeria
2.3 Women, education and work
2.4 Implications for development and education
2.5 Contributions of educated women in National
2.6 Factors impinging on women’s education in Nigeria
2.7 Efforts made in promoting women’s education in Nigeria.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sampling and sampling techniques
3.4 Research instrument
3.5 Validity of the instrument
3.6 Reliability of the instrument
3.7 Administration of instrument
3.8 Data collection
3.9 Data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND
Presentation and Analysis of Data
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION
5.2 Implication for the study
5.4 Limitations of the study
5.5 Suggestions for further study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Studies over time have revealed that education is the most potent instrument for the emancipation of any group of people. Sambo (2000) opined that mental freedom, which usually precedes all other forms of freedom, can only be guaranteed by an effective education system. This view was further crystallized by Okeke (1995:15) when she observed that education is a sure pathway to the liberation of the mind and the improvement of socio economic status of people. History, the world over, is replete with the achievements of men and their contributions to the development processes and from time immemorial the position of women in the structure of society has never been considered on the same plain as that of men, they have been regarded as second-fiddle.
In all countries over the world, education is recognized as the cornerstone for sustainable development. It is a fulcrum around which the quick development of economic, political, sociological and human resources of any country resolves. In fact, the Nigeria national Policy on Education (1981:6) indicates that education is the greatest investment that the nation can make for the quick development of its economic political.
Having recognized education as “an instrument per-excellence for effective national development” as well as “a dynamic instrument of change”, it is also the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women. Education empowers women by improving their living standard. It is the starting point for women’s advancement in different fields of human endeavour. It is the basic tool that should be given to women in order to fulfill their roles as full members of the society. In fact, the educational challenge of Nigerian women is the spring board to every other form of challenges (political, social, economic etc).
As citizens of this great nation who form a great percentage of the population, women in Nigeria are expected to contribute their quota to the development of their country. For individual and national development, it is crucial that girls and female adults should acquire or have formal education. Unfortunately, a cursory look at the pattern of women’s involvement in education in Nigeria reveals abysmal low levels. In spite of all the laudable goals and objectives of education, Nigeria women still suffer a lot of constraints and inhibitions which militate against their personal and national development.
Early history of education in Nigeria showed that women lacked easy access to formal education. By 1965, 37.7% of pupils in primary schools were girls while only 9% of under-graduates were female students. The figure rose to 25.5% by 1974 and the students were mainly enrolled in such courses as teaching and the social sciences.
It is also remarkable and significant to note that the early educational curriculum was designed to train women as teachers, nurses and clerks. They were not in medicine, politics, engineering, law and environmental studies (Achume, 2004). This obviously resulted in shortage of qualified women for top level leadership posts. In other words, majority of women/females are still not being trained and employed in areas that will enhance their chances at competing for position in public life. As can be expected, this low level of female education worsens the imbalance of power that has been existing between the sexes. One of the legacies is the absence of the female equivalence of the male political class.
The plight of women’s education in Nigeria is such that provisions for improving women’s participation had to be made in the Nigerian National Policy on Education section 3, paragraph II of the national policy states thus:
“With regard to women’s education, special efforts will be made by ministries of education and local government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development and social welfare and information to encourage parents to send their daughters to school.”
The Nigerian government had taken several practical steps to improve women’s participation in education by establishing of full- fledged women’s education sector under the Federal Ministry of Education in 1986. It has been well observed by Alao and Ajayi (1989:8) that after more than twenty years of the existence of the women’s education section in the Federal Ministry of Education, women’s Education is still in a dire need of improvement which as a result form the basis of this work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The contention that there was a bias against women in traditional Nigeria society is too obvious in the country that women are the subjects of growing national and international interest is unquestionable and this interest stems from the acute recognition that women are crucial to social and economic development.
However, this research work argues that the number of women who have acquired tertiary education is disproportionate to the number involved in the labour sector. Therefore, there is under utilization of manpower and a negative return in human resources. As a result, there is need for education to address the imperatives of development by liberating women from unfounded and baseless myths that keep them away from labour participation.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This paper seeks to achieve the following objectives
- To highlight the factors inhibiting women’s education which have contributed significantly towards female mass illiteracy in Nigeria.
- To argue for the introduction and nurturing of educational programmes which will galvanize the empowerment of women of all categories in Nigeria.
- To also expatiate on challenges faced by women towards educational development in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of this research work, the following question shall be answered in the course of the study
- Has women education gives positive impact on Nigeria education?
- Does sexuality education contribute to the growth of women education in Nigeria?
- Does work in any way has affected women education in Nigeria?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis shall be tested for this research study
Null hypothesis (Ho): Women education has negative impact on educational development in Nigeria.
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): Women education has positive impact on education development in Nigeria.
Ho: Domestic work has reduced the level of women education in Nigeria
Hi: Domestic work has not reduced the level of women education in Nigeria
Ho: Distance education is not a women empowerment in Nigeria Educational system.
Hi: Distance education is an empowerment for women in
Nigeria Educational system.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The main significant of this project is to critically look at the challenges of women on Nigeria educational system.
The study shall also dwell on the relationship between women education and work be it domestic, social or political.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education: The sum total of experiences that a person acquires in partaking in everyday activities.
Empowerment: The process and the result of the process whereby the powerless members of the society gain greater access and control over material
Challenge: A call to prove something right
Development: A new stage in a changing situation.
System: A set of assemblage of things connected, or inter-dependent.
Women: An adult human female.
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