CHALLENGES OF NATIONAL SECURITY ON EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHERN PART REGION OF NIGERIA
The study was carried out to examine the challenges of National Security on Educational Development in northern part region of Nigeria, with reference to University of Abuja. The population comprises of all students and staff (Non and Academic), this 100 respondents constituted the sample for the study out of which 98 was collected, data for the study was self developed questionnaire. Data collected was duly analyzed with chi-square (x2cal). The result obtained show that there is significant relationship between National Security and Educational Development in Nigeria this was base on the tested hypotheses, it was then recommended among others that the Nigeria Government needs to go beyond paper confrontation on security strategy and adequate action should be put in place for proper check.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Content vii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1 .2 Statement of Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significant of Study 7
1.7 Scope and Delimitation 8
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical View 10
2.2 History of the National Security 11
2.3 The Nature and Definition of National Security 15
2.4 Elements of National Security 17
2.5 The Niger Delta Crisis 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Methodology 30
3.1 Research Design 30
3.2 Population of the Study 30
3.3 Sample and Sample Technique 31
3.4 Research Instrument 31
3.5 Administration of Instrument 32
3.6 Validity of the Instrument 32
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 32
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
4.1 Analysis of Personal Data 33
4.2 Testing of Research Hypotheses 36
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary of the Finding 43
5.2 Conclusion 44
5.3 Recommendation 46
5.4 Suggestion for Further Study 48
1.1 Background of the Study
Safeguarding the sovereign, independence and territorial integrity of the state was the central pillar of Nigeria national security policy other guiding principle were African unity and independence, non intervention in the internal affairs of other states, and regional economic development and security cooperation, subordinate goals included military self sufficiency and regional leadership. In pursuing these goals Nigeria was diplomatic and flexible but it employed coercive method or measured force when necessary Nigeria was an active participant in the United Nations (UN). The Organization of African Unity (OAU) and ECOWAS. In 1998 the leadership seemed intent on retrenchment, according priority to domestic political and economic problems, and displayed a mature and conciliatory approach to foreign policy.
Nigeria’s location on the gulf of guinea, straddling western and equatorial African, its long land and coastal boundaries, and its offshore oil deposits defined the country’s regional geo strategic situation. A British colonial background set it apart form its francophone neighbors, an historical anomaly that affected the local security milieu. Nigeria relations with the major powers were shaped. In the case of Britain and France largely by this post colonial heritage.
A short-lived defense pact with Britain after independence was terminated in 1962. In the case of the superpowers whose interests in the region until the late 1980s were functions of their global rivalry and resource needs. Lagos deliberately balanced its relations with Washington and Moscow.
Nigeria security concern and threat perceptions emanated from many quarters. The country’s dependence on the production and export of oil was aggravated by naval, deployments of the major power along the maritime transit routes of the south Atlantic and the gulf of guinea. It experience of incisions by neighbors by such potential adversaries as France, Libya, and South African, heightened Lagos sensitivities about border security. Nigeria’s security conditions but related categories, local and bilateral, African and regional, and global.
Security plays a vital role in the development of all sectors in Nigeria, as such the security can cause damage to the development of the country.
According to Bamgbose (1999) “There is a growing awareness that research reports on educational development in Nigeria has traditionally focused on studies carried out in the cities”. Statistics available on educational development are mainly on environment schools in the urban center. Students intent to apply and enrol for those universities in the cities rather than those in the rural areas, thus the number (population) seeking admission into urban university is at geometric rate, based on this the security issue cannot be overlooked.
In view of the above, this study attempts to investigate the challenges of national security of educational development in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Challenges of national security on educational development in Nigeria is worthwhile of study because it plays a key role in all sectors of the country both in the past and recent time. It has been observed that, regional conditions produced a sense of isolation and uncertainty particularly shift in the balance instability, and encirclement by relatively weak state in the country with residual or formal defense ties to their former operating power, more importantly conflicts throughout the state, political, social
conflicts, religion e.t.c and related propensity for great power intervention. All these are as a result to problem of insecurity in Nigeria which has led to various group formulation such as Niger delta militant OPC, Egbesu and recent Boko Haram e.t.c all which threatened the security of the country.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The following are the purposes for the study:-
- To examine the challenges of national security in Nigeria
- To find out the causes of national insecurity in Nigeria, and mode of financing security.
- iii. To reveal the problems of national security in the educational development in Nigeria tertiary institutions
- To find out if there are measures that can be used to reduce insecurity in Nigeria educational sector.
- To make necessary recommendations thereafter the study.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the challenges of national security in Nigeria?
- To what extent has the cause of National security affect Nigeria development?
- iii. Is there any significant relationship between national security and educational development in Nigeria? .
- To what extent will any measure curb national insecurity and aid development?
The required hypotheses for the study will be stated in a null form (Ho)
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between social conflict and national security
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between national Security and Nigeria educational development.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between regional crisis and National Security.
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between educational finance and National Security.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is believed that national security is a veritable tool towards achieving the sustainable development of the country, as such the study will be of great important to individual and government stakeholders, and in that various measure, and problem that involve national security will be revealed, it should be noted that most threatened factor group to Nigeria security claim to fight for their “rights” or a tagged known has interest of their group or tribe, as such various measure will be under study in order to limit such challenges.
Education as put Olatunji (2004) is a veritable tool to enhance development in all the sectors, as such government of any country must consider its trends toward development, with this, if education is vital, all factor that will hinder its progress must be taken into consideration.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation
In other to have relevant information and data as regards the study, the study focused on the challenges of national security on the educational development in Nigeria with a reference to University of Abuja, Nigeria, Information will be gathered based on the stated reference, the study will also examine the past political decision on the issue of national security and development of educational sector.
1.8 Definition of Operational Terms
Sovereign: A country or state having the power or freedom to govern itself completely independent
Security: The activities in protecting a country (property) against attack/danger
Cohesive: Method (security) using force/the threat of force in arresting situation or problems.
Incursion: Sudden attack on (prepared for) a place by foreign armies.
Education: A process of impacting knowledge through schooling to improve knowledge and skill
Educational Development: A process of improving aspect of educational sectors, in order to ensure stronger standard.
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