ASSESSMENT OF CIVIC EDUCATION AS TOOLS FOR NATION BUILDING (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
This study “Assessment of civic education as tools for nation building” attempts to asses civic education as a tool for nation building. However, the researcher adopted a descriptive method survey and formulated four different hypotheses for the purpose of the study. A well structured questionnaire was adopted together to gather information from respondents randomly selected from five (5) schools in Ojo Local Government. Meanwhile, the data collected were collated and subjected to chi-square statistical analysis using 0.05 as level of significance. Consequently all formulated hypotheses were rejected and recommendations were made as well as the implication of the study and suggestions for further studies were clearly stated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the Study 9
1.4 Research Questions 10
1.5 Research Hypothesis 11
1.6 Significance of the Study 11
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study 13
1.8 Definition of Term 13
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.0 Introduction 15
2.1 The Concept of Civic Education 15
2.2 Scope of Civic Education 17
2.2.1 Theory of Civic Education 19
2.3 Aims and Objectives of Civic Education 21
2.3.1 Component of Civic Education 23
2.4 Concept of Nation Building 25
2.5 Civic Education and Nation Buildings in Nigeria 27
2.6 Civic Education as a Tool for Nation Building 33
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.0 Introduction 37
- Research Design 38
3.2 Population of the Study 38
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 39
3.4 Research Instrumentation 39
3.5 Validity of the Instrument 40
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 40
3.7 Administration of the Instrument 41
3.8 Data Analysis 41
Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis of Results
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis 44
Chapter Five: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.0 Introduction 53
- Summary 53
- Conclusion 54
- Implication of the Study 58
- Recommendations 58
- Suggestion for Further Studies 60
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Societies have long had an interest in the ways in which their young are prepared for citizenship and in how they learn to take part in civic life. The interest today might better be described as a concerned. In fact as a growing concern particularly in democratic societies.
Banks (2005) holds that the ideals and values which are rooted in civic education emerged about a century ago as a kind of panacea for solving problems confronting human kind. It was held that an adoption or adaptation of the ideals and values intrinsic in this kind of education could go a long way towards ameliorating solving the problems arising from man’s in humanity to man (Kazi, 2004).
Corbin (1983) portrays civic education as a curriculum instrument which is tailored at bringing about the breaking of barriers amongst societies for the purpose of increasing the opportunities for individuals and group to be enabled to benefit from social privileges, benefits and assets which may be available to them as members of a given socio-political framework.
Southern land, (1978) describe civic education as one of a number of instructional designs of examining human life and of organizing our knowledge and experience about the world in which we live; they endorse that it has largely grown out of your attempts to understand and perhaps, control man’s social environment and or the world at large.
In his reflection on the emergence of civic education as an instructional design, (Rusell, 1977) regretted that our world has become a mad place. He observed that ever since the first world war, the world ceases to be constructive because will not apply their intelligence in creating values and understanding for the sake of making progress, but rather persist in retaining the division of mankind into hostile groups. He disclosed the prevalence of a general collective failure in many part of the world, on the part of men, to use the intelligence they possess for the purpose of emerging with values and humane ideals which are conducive for social-preservation and progress. He lamented that many misplaced value which have been allowed to operate vulgarly in many societal frameworks are all dragging or rather tending society towards a situation of disorder. Rusell (1977), recited that most of these misplaced valued impinge on issues and problems which bear on: (a) forces of religion, sex, education, class feeling and competition which have been allowed to operate irrationally in many parts of the world to the extent of producing in the young instantly, stupidity, readiness for homicide economic injustice and ruthlessness (b) forces of intolerance, hatred, pain and misfortune which have engulfed and consumed many minds such that they have lost their power of balanced judgment which is needed for an emergence out of the sloughing which mankind is staggering ; (c) a characterization of many society by displays of disharmony and instability in their political and social frameworks; (d) a menace from problems of uncertainty which not only wedge many societies away from others but which also militate against socio-political advancement; and (e) problems of imbalance, inequality and the like which handicap many developing countries from their emancipation out of their colonial and apartheid history into a life that is based on an equal fooling with other societies or countries in the world of mankind.
Haves (2007) expatiate further that the foregoing crises situations have gained grounds in alarming proportion in recent years. He reflects that these crises situations have become very stubborn to control and manage as the case in many developing counties. He cited Nigeria as an example of a polity where there crisis situation have assumed immense significance, particularly in the context of her efforts at grappling and attempting to solve problems which bear on her socio-political development.
Agu (2010) conclude “as far back as the 1990s, it becomes painfully evident that the lack of civic education and patriotic orientation had led to disorientation in schools and the larger society”. The drive towards re-engineering the process of teaching and learning civic education in our primary and secondary schools had become very imperative especially in the face of dwindling levels of national consciousness, social harmony and patriotic zeal.
The consequences were being felt at all strata of our society. This way political bureau setup by former president Ibrahim Babangida recommended, in March, 1987, the establishment of a Directorate for Mass Mobilization, Social and Economic Recovery (MAMSER) which eventually transformed into the National Orientation Agency (NOA). Nigeria is currently marred with civic related problems, as well as 9inter and intra-ethnic violence. Among these crises are Niger Delta crisis, religious clashes in the North under the disguise of Boko Haram, the tenses political situation in the nation, suspicion and destruct among the various ethnic groups. Steve (2008) added that, civil strife has afflicted Nigeria’s troubled central belt, which straddles a North that is predominantly Hausa-Fulani and Muslim and a South that is overwhelming Yoruba and Igbo Christian. Violence has flared over a decade, with deadly riots in 2001, 2008, 2010 especially all the blast started after the 2011 presidential elections.
Several conscious effort have been made by the government to maintain peace and stability in Jos, Maiduguri, Bornu, Yobe and Bauchi blast that persist every day’s but all government effort were abortive without a fruitful success. Various suggestions from well meaning individuals are being made to ensure that Nigeria remains an indivisible entity where every Nigerian will consider himself as a Nigerian first before seeing himself as Hausa, Igbo or Yoruba and so on.
A way to reverse the trend presented above is through civic education which can assist in producing among our youths national consciousness of her citizens. This may be achieved through education. Civic education has become increasingly an important means for countries to educate their citizens about their rights and civic responsibilities. Increasing pluralism within states has encouraged the development of civic education that goes beyond simple “patriotic” models of citizens requiring uncritical loyalty to their ethnic group. Therefore, the aim of the researcher is to analyze how civic education can be use as a tool to sustain national building.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Since civic education has been seen as the means in a sovereign state whereby the citizens or individuals become socially and politically aware, socially integrated into the social milieu, acquire social skills and competence, become socially sensitive and actively participate in their social responsibilities for maximum productivity and development, all in the interest of that state but in Nigeria context is a negative entirely where a number of unwholesome behaviour exhibited by Nigerian which had negate her aims towards nation building.
Corruption which has permeated into our social fabric to the extent that nothing work in the society except if a bribe is offered to one who legitimately ought to do the job for which he/she is paid. The aim of the researcher is to solve the following if not totally eradicated. The problems include embezzlement, corruption, squandering of the national economy, political naiveté and executive in discipline are among the behaviour of Nigeria citizen that negate her national development disobey the law by those in authority, such as driving on one way traffic lanes, thus endangering the lives of the citizen, other behaviour which negate the hope of nation building include cultism and ritual killing on out universities, falsification of result, tax evasion, disregard to public law and order, examination malpractice, derelictions of duty, underpayment for public goods, “ghost workers” syndrome, inflation of contact terms, illegal trade in drugs, smuggling of contrab and materials among other. All the aforementioned need to be curbed and immediate steps and correction need to be taken in order to realize the task of nation building.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the research is to:
- Examine civic education as a tools or nation building
- Describe the relationship between civic education and national development.
- Find out the socio-economic needs for civic-education in realizing national development.
- Find out ways of achieving goals and objectives of civic education towards national building.
- Find out likely problems which may negate the aims of realizing nation building.
- Examine probable solution to the problems which might negate the aims of nation building.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Is there any significant relationship between civic education and nation building?
- Is there any significant relationship between civic education and democracy sustenance?
- Is there any significant relationship between civic education and political stability?
- Is there any significant relationship between civic education and socio-economic sustenance?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- There is no significant relationship between civic education and nation building.
- There is no significant relationship between civic education and democracy sustenance.
- There is no significant relationship between civic education and political stability.
- There is no significant relationship between socio-economic sustenance and civic education.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research work is to develop an informed, effective and responsible citizenry because nation building can be sustained by citizens who have the requisite knowledge, skills and dispositions.
However, the result of this research will provide basis for effective and patriotic citizen. It will help the government in the area of government, sharing of power, democracy sustenance and decision making.
This work will also help the citizen to be more patriotic about civic life politics, critical reflection and acceptance of the right and responsibility of the government. Also to help the civil society not only prevents the abuse or excessive concentration of power by governments.
Therefore, educator, stakeholders, parents, teacher, policy makers and other members of the civil society to know the importance of civic education in order to realize the dream of nation building.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is to examine civic education as tools to achieve nation building in Nigeria. The scope would have however covers a wide are but due to some constraint which include: transportation, financial constraint, unbiased of the respondents, unavailability of material. However, the study will be limited to five (5) selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- Ojo Barracks Secondary School Ojo-Barracks.
- Awori College, Ojo.
- Alapere Secondary School, Ijanikin.
- Oto-Awori Grammar School, Oto-Awori.
- Nodos International School, Ojo.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Civic: Duties of citizens to vote in general elections
Indiscipline: Lack of control that leads to bad behaviour of citizens which may leads to riot.
Citizen: Someone who lives in a particular town or country and has rights and responsibilities in that country.
Nation Building: It involves the various process of integrating the various people in a country into solidarity with common goals and objectives to achieve declared goals.
Patriotic: Citizen that loves their country and zealously supports and defends her country.
Ameliorating: To make the country better to realize nation building.
Constructive: Suggesting improvements in order to build a nation
Responsibility: The positive attitude and value discharge by citizen to the country to enhance nation building.
Right: Privileges that the state/country owns or discharges to the citizenry
Value: Attitude that the country cherished for her battlement
Embezzlement: Fraudulent conversion of the nation/state.
Corruption: Illegal act that can jeopardize act of nation building
Squandering: Act of wasting or splurging country’s money.
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