EFFECT OF TEACHERS’ QUALIFICATIONS ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF PUPILS IN PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
The study was set out to examine the effect of teachers’ qualifications on the cognitive development of pupils in pre-primary schools. To achieve the objectives, four research questions were raised. The population of the study covered 100 teachers in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. The data for the study, generated through a self-constructed but validated questionnaire were analyzed using simple percentages. The findings of the study revealed that average of the teachers sampled have the knowledge of pre-primary school education objectives in Nigeria. However, below average of the teacher perceived teaching as a lucrative profession. Also majority of the teachers have interest in the cognitive development of their pupils. Finally, some problems which include irregularly in salary payment, inadequate teachers’ textbooks, and inadequate supervision were identified as impediments to effective performance of primary school teachers. Based on the findings, it was recommended that government should pay teachers’ salary and supply current textbooks adequately to schools among others.
Keywords: ECCE, NCCE, caregiver, lucrative profession, re-profiling, learning material.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi – viii
1.0. Background to the Study 1 – 3
1.1. Statement of the Problem 3
1.2. Purpose of the Study 4
1.3. Research Questions 4
1.4. Significance of the Study 4
1.6. Scope of the Study 5
1.7. Limitation of the Study 5
1.8. Operational Definitions 5
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 6
2.0. Introduction 6
2.1. Concept of Education 6 – 7
2.2. The Professional Teacher 7 – 8
2.3. Functions and Responsibilities of a Good Teacher 8 – 12
2.4. Qualities of a Good Teacher 12 – 14
2.5. Concept of Early Childhood Education (ECE) 14 – 15
2.6. Forms of Education 15 – 17
2.7. Teaching as a Profession 17 – 18
2.8. Characteristics of Profession 18
2.9. Re-Profiling the Teacher and the Teacher Educator 19 – 42
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 43
3.1. Research Design 43
3.2. Population of the Study 43
3.3. Sample and Sampling Techniques 43
3.4. Research Instrument 44
3.5. Validity of the Instrument 44
3.6. Reliability of the Instrument 45
3.7. Procedure for Data Collection 45
3.8. Method of Data Analysis 45
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 46
4.1. Introduction 46
4.2. Presentation and Analysis of Respondent Bio Data 46 – 53
4.3. Discussion of findings 53 – 54
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 55
- Summary 55
5.2 Conclusion 55 – 56
- Recommendations 56 – 57
- Suggestion for Further Study 57
REFERENCES 58 – 60
APPENDIX 61 – 63
1.0. Background to the Study
Nigeria is not left out of the countries that subscribe to the fact that education is a veritable means of effecting national development. To this end, government, private individuals and organizations have established educational institutions at all levels in order to satisfy the educational needs and aspiration of the people.
The pre-primary education plays an important role in the life of an individual as well as the nation as a whole. The National policy on education (2004) refers to the education at this level as the education given in institutions for children aged 0 – 5. The document added that since the rest of the education system is built upon it, the pre-primary level is the key to the success or failure of a whole system.
Education is believed to be life, hence, Obemeata (1996) stated that education is the development of the whole man, soul, body, intellectual, will, emotion and physical well-being. Bassey, Ekpoh and Edet (2008) identified the emerging problems of school to include conflict of management, inadequacy of essential working materials and infrastructure, skeletal implementation of policy, lack of qualified teachers for skill acquisition, problem of monitoring, ignorance by the teachers and lack of political will.
The inculcation or the right type of attitude values and skills at school level is made possible through teaching. Jekayinfa (2000) in Atanda, Adeyemi and Adebisi (2006) defined teaching as a vehicle for education. This means that teaching shoulders the responsibility of delivering the good of education. Opatunji (1996) described teaching as a social function that aims at guiding the necessary growth in others while Nwachi (1991) in Atanda and Lemeed (2006) viewed it as the imparting of knowledge from one person to another and the guiding of someone to behave in a particular manner.
Teaching therefore cannot be done by just anybody because it involves a body of knowledge being imparted person through conscious and deliberate approach (Frankena, 1965) we can infer from this, that teaching requires some knowledgeable personalities, who offer the necessary knowledge and skills to another person.
To Kochher (2003), teacher is a vital component of school administration. The teacher stands at the most important point in the educational process and must therefore be well versed in the art of teaching. This means that a personality called teacher must have acquired the skills required to perform his/her role. This is why Akinpelu (2003) described a teacher as someone who underwent a long period of socialized training and is regarded as moral instructor, moral educator and a moral model for his learners. Hence, Atanda and Lamed (2006) referred to a teacher as a professional who imparts skills, knowledge, information and attitudes among others to the learners.
The qualification of teachers found in pre-primary schools goes a long way in determining the cognitive development of children. The national policy on education (2004) affirms that no education can rise above the quality of its teachers. Thus, teachers are the single most important learning resources available to who teach to posses full knowledge and understanding of the subject they are teaching, acquire the necessary skills and experience to transmit their knowledge and understanding effectively to pupils. Qualified teachers are therefore required for necessary transformation in our primary schools.
1.1. Statement of the Problem
There are various studies showing that generally, a higher level of education is associated with higher pedagogic quality in early childhood education and care settings (Fowowe, (2011) and Owolabi et al (2005). Studies have equally proved that pre-school teachers with Nigeria certificate in Education and bachelor’s degrees were the most effective practitioners at pre-primary. Their effectiveness was measured within the classroom and based on stimulation, responsiveness and engagement of the children in learning activities. The results of the effective provision of pre-school education have also shown that key explanatory factors for cognitive development of children were related to staff with higher qualifications, staff with leadership skills and long serving staff; trained staff working alongside and supporting less qualified staff; staff with a good understanding of child development and learning. Sincerely, most teachers in the pre-primary schools lack the skills necessary to care, educate, protect and nurture young children effectively. Therefore, this present study looked at the effect of teachers’ qualification on the cognitive development of pupils in pre-primary schools.
1.2. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of teachers’ qualification on the cognitive development of children in the pre-primary school and to measure if teachers or caregivers in the Lagos State pre-primary schools affect the lives of the young children the way it should go.
1.3. Research Questions
- What are the problems perceived by pre-primary school teacher as hindrance to their effective performance?
- Do pre-primary school teachers have concern for cognitive development of the pupils?
- How do pre-primary school teachers perceive the teaching profession?
- Do pre-primary school teachers have the knowledge of objectives of pre-primary education in Nigeria?
- Would negligence of government on education affect teachers’ performance?
1.4. Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is to educate practicing teachers, parents and general public on the relevance of teachers’ qualification on the cognitive development of children and also its effect on the achievement of pre-primary education.
1.6. Scope of the Study
This research work focuses on teachers’ qualification on the cognitive development of pre-primary school pupils in Lagos State. A study of selected schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.7. Limitation of the Study
This study will be limited to selected school in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8. Operational Definitions
Child: A pupil under the supervision of a teacher or caregiver in a crèche nursery or kindergarten.
Qualification: A skill or type of experience that is needed for a particular job or activity
Teacher: A person whose job is to teach especially in a school.
Pre-primary school: A school for children between the ages of about 0 – 5
Cognitive: The mental process of understanding.
Professional Development: Used in reference to wide variety of specialized training, formal education or advanced professional learning intended to help teachers, caregivers etc to improve professional knowledge, competence, skills etc.
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