EFFECT OF SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BASIC SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study accessed the effects of school environment on effective teaching and learning of basics science in junior secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area in Lagos State. A survey research design was adopted and a questionnaire was design for the students to elicit response about their views on the issue. Basic science teachers of the various selected schools participated in the study. Research questions were set to guide the activities of the researcher. The data collected were analyzed using the chi-square method. Results of the findings revealed that effects of adequate laboratory facilities influence the academic performance of basic science students in junior secondary schools, and recommend that effective and efficient use of laboratory facilities and conducive learning environment should be priority to the teaching and learning of basic science in junior secondary schools so as to guarantee learners effective academic performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vii-viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1-5
1.2 Statement of the problem 6
1.3 Purpose of the study 6
1.4 Research question 7
1.5 Research hypothesis 7
1.6 Significance of the study 8
1.7 Scope of the study 8
1.8 Limitation to the study 8
1.9 Definition of terms. 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Concept of Basic Science / Integrated Science 10-15
2.3 Aims and Objective of Basic Science 15-20
2.4 Concept of Environment 20-22
2.4.1 Components of the Environment
2.4.2 Teaching and Learning Environment
2.5 Challenges Faced by Basic Science Teachers in
Teaching and Learning Process of Basic Science. 22-27
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Research Design 28
3.3 Population of the Study 28
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure 28-29
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 29
3.6 Validation of Instrument 29
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 29
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection 30
3.9 Data Analysis 30
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA
AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction 31
4.2 Demographic data 31-32
4.3 Testing of hypothesis 33-38
CHAPTER FIVEL: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 39
5.2 Summary 39-40
5.3 Conclusion 40
5.4 Recommendation 41-42
1.1 Background to the study
Formal Education was introduced into our country (Nigeria), by the white Missionaries in 1842 Baja in Omiko (1987). At this period, the curriculum emphasized three main things;- Reading, writing and Arithmetic. Survey studies carried out by Taiwo (1975), Abdullahi (1982) and Ukpai (1985), showed that teaching and learning of science in Nigerian schools started as far back as 1878. According to them, science was taught as general science to classes one and two in the secondary schools and as biology, chemistry and physics to upper classes of three, four and five. However, according to the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN 1970) in Omiko (2015), this general science continued until 1970 when Integrated Science, now Basic Science, was introduced as a base to express the fundamental unity of scientific thought. The teaching and learning of integrated science replaced the general science and was taught in Nigerian schools up to 1980 when the Federal Government restructured the 5 – years secondary school system into 6-3-3-4 system. That is 6 years primary Education, 3-years junior secondary school (JSS) Education, 3- years Senior Secondary School (SSS) Education and 4-years tertiary education (FRN, 1981).
The teaching and learning of integrated science in Nigerian schools especially at the Junior Secondary school level continued till 2009 when the Federal Government of Nigeria restructured the 6-year secondary school system into 9-3-4 system. The reform Agenda in Education in Nigeria brought a change in integrated science both in content and name. The content was broadened and the name changed from integrated science to basic science. Oka (2015) and Nwafor (2012) observed that basic science formally known as integrated science is a subject taught at both public and private schools at the Junior Secondary school level. Basic Science is an introductory course to the study of the sciences in the senior secondary school. The definition of integrated science (Basic Science) as was given by UNESCO (1973), and Omiko (2005) is a science in which concepts and principles are resented so as to express the fundamental unit of scientific taught and avoiding premature or undue stress on the distinction between various scientific fields. Ukpabi (1985) in Omiko (2005) defined Basic Science as a science in undifferentiated form which stresses the fundamental unity of science. Basic science involves the study of elementary biology, anatomy, earth/solar system, ecology, genetics, chemistry and physics as a single science subject in the Junior Secondary school. It offers the basic training in scientific skills required for human survival, sustainable development and societal transformation. Basic science studies also involve bringing together traditionally separate science subjects so that students grasp a more authentic understanding of science.
The study of Basic science (Integrated science) is a new way of studying science, according to Omiko (2012) and Anaekwe etal (2010), Basic Science was introduced into this country Nigeria a few decades ago. It started with few schools, and now all the junior secondary schools in the country have adopted it.
According to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) the aims of Basic Science (Formerly Integrated Science) should be directed at enabling students who are exposed in it, to acquire the following skills:
- Observe carefully and thoroughly.
- Report completely and accurately what is observed.
- Organise information acquired.
- Generalizing on the basis of the acquired information.
- Predicting as a result of the generalization.
- Designing experiments (including control where necessary) to check predictions.
- Using models to explain phenomena where appropriate; and.
- Continuing the process of inquiry when new data do not conform to predictions.
The term science has to do with nature; it is derived from the Latin word scientia which means knowledge. It is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanation and predictions about the universe. It can equally be defined as the field of study which tries to describe and understand the nature of the universe in whole or part. According to Hyacinth (2004) science in its broadest scene refers to all human activities involving organized knowledge of natural phenomena. It also refers to a system of acquiring knowledge here system uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain natural phenomena.
Available literatures have shown that performance of students in basic science as a subject is low (Adetayo, 2008). Also, the Delta State Ministry of Education Chief Examiners Report (2008) revealed students abysmal performance in basic Science at the Junior Secondary Certificate Examination. Problems such as poor school infrastructure, lack of qualified basic Science teachers, poorly equipped science workshops and laboratories just to mention a few affects the teaching of basic Science. Despite these problems, the subject is still being taught in schools. Over the years, Educational researchers have investigated factors affecting students learning of basic Science in schools. At the heart of the inquiry, is the teacher’s factor. Studies have established relationship between teachers’ factors and students’ achievement in school (Olatoye, 2006 and Adekola, 2006).
Effective teaching of basic Science is an activity which will bring about the most productive and beneficial learning experience for students and promote their development as learners. Effective teaching of basic Science goes beyond just imparting knowledge but it is a purposeful activity carried out by somebody with a specialized knowledge in basic Science in a skillful way to enhance cognitive, affective and psychomotor development of a person or group of persons.
For the teaching of basic Science to be effective, the basic Science teacher must have an extensive knowledge of the subject, knowledge of the curriculum, knowledge and understanding of how children develop and how they learn. This includes knowledge of the context in which learning occurs (home, community, school factor) and knowledge of assessment techniques. A basic Science teacher should possess some teaching skills and be able to plan lessons, manage a classroom, engage students in active learning, present challenging situations to encourage problem solving, collect and monitor information on achievement, maintain good students record, provide motivation for students and support cooperative group work.
The teaching of basic Science requires various teaching approaches and meaningful learning (Ayodele and Adegbite, 2003). The use of inappropriate methods could make students dread science education in later life.
In another development, Ololube, Egbezor and Kpolovie (2008) argued that the falling educational standards can be attributed to the use of teachers who are unqualified for instructional purposes, including those with general education (academic) qualifications such as Bachelors of Science (B.Sc.), Bachelors of Arts (B.A), Master of Science (M.Sc.) and Masters of Arts (M.A) degrees without teaching qualifications. It must be noted that without a professional teaching qualification, no meaningful progress can be achieved in the teaching profession. Lawal (2003) indicated that skilled and effective teaching of basic science and factors affecting and learning are expected from professionally trained teachers.
Basic Science teachers are expected to employ the use of teaching aids to supplement other methods and manage and control their classes for effective learning of Basic Science. The use of inappropriate methods could affect students’ performance in basic Science. Many of the Basic Science teachers do not have a clear insight about the appropriate pedagogies to enhance Basic Science teaching and learning. Most of the teachers resort to teaching with only one major teaching method which is the lecture or “chalk and talk” method in our Basic Science classroom. Sometimes, classes are too large for teachers to manage for effective teaching and learning. This has greatly affected Basic Science teaching ranging from methodology and techniques of teaching (Okoye, 2004).
Basic Science is a revolutionary introductory science curriculum developed at Princeton, intended for students considering a career in science. By breaking down traditional disciplinary barriers, a year-long course taken in the freshman year provides students with first-rate preparation for a major in any of the core scientific disciplines, and in such a way that helps retain the connections to the other disciplines. The curriculum is founded on the expectation that much of the most important science of the future, though based on the classical disciplines, will lie in areas that span two or more of them.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Basic science is one of the core science subjects, which is supposed to be the most interesting subject to students in junior secondary schools. It has been discovered that the effective teaching of basic science has been very important. But the rate at which students fails basic science in recent time’s shows that effective learning has not been attained by these students. A lot of factors have been identified as responsible to this decline in students performance. This range from students activities. It is upon this background that this study was aimed at finding out The effect of school environment on effective teaching and learning of basic science in junior secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study are to:
- Find out the adequacy in laboratory facilities affect student academic performance on basic science in junior secondary school.
- Determine the effect of school location on student academic performance in basic science in junior secondary school.
- Find out effect of teacher’s student interaction and learning outcome of student in basic science in Junior Secondary school.
1.4 Research Questions
In the course of this work, specific research questions to be answered are:
- Does the adequacy in laboratory facilities affects students academic performance on basic science in junior secondary school?
- What is the effect of school location on students academic performance in basic science in junior secondary school?
- Does the availability of learning resources does not contribute on student performance in basic science?
- Does teacher students interaction affects the learning outcome of students in basic science in junior secondary school?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypothesis would be tested at 0.05 level of significance.
- There is no significant effect of adequacy in laboratory facilities on the students’ academic performance on basic science in junior secondary school.
- There is no significant effect of school location on students performance in basic science.
- Availability of learning resources does not contribute on student performance in basic science.
- There is no significant effect of teacher students interaction on learning outcome of students in basic science.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This research will be beneficial to:
- Teachers: The result of this research will enable teachers to use different teaching methods in teaching basic Science.
- To provide adequate information in the availability of the scientific specification of Basic science equipment in senior secondary schools.
- The result of this study will enable educational supervisors (government officials) to check the activities of schools and show that qualified teachers are used.
- To evaluate effects of effective teaching skills of basic science in junior secondary school.
- To provide teachers with adequate knowledge on the application of instructional aids (materials) to teaching basics science in junior secondary school.
1.7 Scope Of Study
The study is aimed at evaluating the effect of school environment on effective teaching and learning of basic science in junior secondary schools. Four selected secondary schools were randomly selected in the study area.
1.8 Limitation of the study
This research work in aimed at evaluating the effect of school environment on effective teaching and learning of basics science in junior secondary schools in Badagry local government area, but due to time, and financial constraint, this research study will be limited to four selected schools in Badagry local Government Aera of Lagos State.
1.9 Definition Of The Basic Concepts
Teaching resources: Learning resources are texts, videos, software, and other materials that teachers use to assist students to meet the expectations for learning defined by provincial or local curricula. Before a learning resource is used in a classroom, it must be evaluated and approved at either the provincial or local level.
Teacher and students interaction: Classroom organization refers to the ways teachers help children develop skills to regulate their own behavior, get the most learning out of each school day, and maintain interest in learning activities.
School environment: A school environment is broadly characterized by its facilities, classrooms, school-based health supports, and disciplinary policies and practices. It sets the stage for the external factors that affect students.
Basic science: is the study that relates to basic discovery, inventions in the field of science. It is the knowledge of knowing about facts. … The goal of basic science is to expand or explore the knowledge in a particular field. Applied Science. Applied science is an application of acquired knowledge.
Laboratory facilities: is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
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