AN ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS PROMOTING DRUG ABUSE AMONG STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION
This study access the factor promoting drug abuse among students in colleges of education in Lagos State. A survey research design was adopted and a questionnaire was design for the students to elicit response about their views on the issue. 200 level students participated in the study. Research questions were set to guide the activities of the researcher. The data collected were analyzed using the chi-square method. Results of the findings revealed that student academic activities stimulate their involvement in drug abuse, the influence of peer group and mass media lead to student involvement in drug abuse, parent and family background encourage the involvement of students in drug abuse, school location has significant influence on student involvement in drug abuse and recommend that every use of drug indicate identification measures should be followed by an intervention.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Content vii-ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the study 5
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Research hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the study 6
1.7 Delimitation of the study 7
1.8 Definition of terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Concept of drug 9
2.2 Concept of drug abuse and use 10
2.3 Concept of drug addiction 11
2.4 Type of abused drugs base on short term and long term effects 14
2.5 Factor influencing drug abuse among students 21
2.6 Prevalence of drug abuse and drug use among student. 27
2.7 Remedies to the problem of drug abuse 28
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Research design 29
3.3 Population of the study 29
3.4 Sample and sampling techniques 29
3.5 Research instrumentation 30
3.6 Validity of the instrument 30
3.7 Reliability of the instrument 31
3.8 Method of data collection 31
3.9 Method of data analysis 31
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Introduction 32
4.1 Presentation of demographic data 32
4.2 Analysis of the hypothesis 34
4.3 Discussion of findings 37
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 40
5.2 Conclusion 41
5.3 Recommendation 42
- Background of the study
Drug is any chemical substance derived from plants, animals or mineral resources, be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal application to the human body in the treatment of disease, reduce Pam or modify the function of the various system of the body. Drug is supposed to be dispensed by pharmacists with a doctor’s prescription and usage of drug can be through any of the following, injection, insertion, inhalation massaging or application on open wounds and cuts. The main purpose of drugs should in reality be directed to its medical functions and it should be used strictly according to the prescription of medical doctor’s, but in most cases people use drug without the prescription of medical practice. This is referred to as drug abuse. In some cases, these drugs are used wrongly or misused. There are other cases where some people get themselves involved in the uses of a particular drug so much that they cannot do without such drug. In this case such a person is said to be addicted to that drug.
The history of drug use and abuse will be incomplete if no mention is made about traditional use of drug and abuse. Most traditional drugs are always misused or abused because of lack of dosage to determine the required quantity by the user. The expiration period of such drugs are never stated. Although the use of traditional drugs as well as alcohol and kola nut has been abuse before the arrival of Peace Corps. In recent years there is the usage of both traditional and foreign drugs. Some of these drugs are socially accepted and members of the public ignorantly use them without really knowing the great effect of such drugs. E.g. Alcohol has always been part of the heritages either as part of rituals or other ceremonies. The use of alcohol to relax and promote social conversation is greatly use of alcohol and its social acceptability, alcohol is capable of producing severe dependence and damage to physical health and mental health including social and economic damage on self, family and society. Caffeine which is the main ingredient in tea or coffee and nicotine as in tobacco or cigarette and widely used as mid stimulants and tension relieving drugs, they are considered socially accepted and used recreationally however, they produce dependence and are able to cause harm.
Boys et al (1999) stated reasons why people abuse drugs. Some of the reasons are:
- For modification of tension and anxiety: Medically sedatives are used to induce sleep and relax tension. They are used for people with high blood pressure insomnia that is inability to sleep usually abuse sedative. Teenage girls and women are consuming sedatives more and more frequently.
- To increase activities and alertness: for example stimulant like cocaine. Caffeine and amplie tamines are mostly widely abused stimulant among youths. Usually stimulants are taken through by mouth in form of capsules or tablets but the occasional uses of capsules or tablets can push him/her self beyond his normal physiological limits e.g. wanting to step awake to drive to excel in an athletic content or to cram for examination.
- Curiosity: Students finds themselves in the use of drugs out of curiosity. They want to know how it looks like in being on a certain drugs. Drugs that are commonly used out of curiosity are cigarettes, Marijuana and alcohol.
- Imitation: Students take drugs as a result of imitating others either from their parents, adult or their friends.
- For Boldness: Students take certain drug because they feel it will remove inhibition from them and make them bold. E.g. Shy young boys under the influence of drugs can speak to a girl they could have made advance towards.
- For Fun: Others go into drugs for the fun of it and that also feel that drug can enable them have a lot of fun.
Franzkowak, (1987) identified four groups of drug users which are:
- Emotionally well adjusted individuals who take addicting drugs or medical advice for treatment of pain/ sleeplessness and the like after protected use they find that they cannot get along without them.
- The neurotics who turn to drug because drugs make them forget their feelings of inadequacy and fear making them feel better and more normal either physically, mentally or both these contribute to longest group of drug abusers.
- The psychopathic who take drugs in a deliberate search for thrills highs and kicks.
- Individual usually adolescent who try drug in order to be accepted by their peer group.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The physical, psychological, social and economic consequences of the drug problem among students’ are becoming more obvious and disturbing. Students’ abuse drug because of the problem academic difficulties, health related problems (including mental health). Poor peer -relationships and involvement in social vices such as stealing, bullying, and secret cult activities. All these have negative consequence on family members, community and the entire society.
It is logical to think that if this problem of drug abuse persist among undergraduate students’ it may be difficult for such students to obtain good academic performance. There is also tendency for increase in anti social tendencies and behavioral problems among undergraduates students in and outside the school.
1.3 Purposes of the Study
The main purposes of the study are:
- Find out if student academic activities stimulate their involvement in drug abuse
- Find out the influence of peer group and mass media on students that are been involves in drug abuse.
- Find out the parent influence and family background of students’ involvement in drug abuse.
- Find out the school location of the students’ contributes to drug abuse.
1.4 Research Questions
- Does students’ academic activities stimulate their involvement in drug abuse?
- -Does peer group have any influence on students’ engaging in drug abuse?
- Did parent influence and family background contribute to their involvement of drug abuse?
- Does school location has any significant influence on students’ involvement in drug abuse?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho1: Students’ academic activities will not stimulate their involvement in drug abuse
Ho2: There is no significant influence of peer group and mass media on students’ involvement in drug abuse.
Ho3: Parent and family background will not encourage the involvement of students’ in drug abuse.
Ho4: School location has no significant influence on students’ involvement in drug abuse.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great importance to students’ especially to those in related study areas in different cities. It will enable the students’ to see the danger involved in drug abuser. It will help to enlighten or educate them to see that they don’t become victim of drug abuse. This study will help to create the awareness of the need of drug abuse and how the use of drug can affect them if they are not been educated on the bad effect of drug abuse which can lead to physically, mentally and psychologically and the negative effect this can have on the educational career and life in general.
This study will help the government handle abuse as an illness and not as a crime and as treatment under medical super-vision, instead of the hard judgment meant for them. Units with advice the government through the Drug Inspection Unit (DIU) of the ministry of health to set up rehabilitation centre to help reform drug addicts to become useful members of the society.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The study was confined to factor influencing drug abuse among students in colleges of education in Lagos States. Therefore their findings will only be generalized to their parts of the country with similar characteristics. This was because the area covered by this study has different condition from those area are not covered.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In this study, there are certain words that need to be simplified or defined in order to make its meaningful and clearer.
- Drug: this is any chemical substance that is derived from plants and animals or mineral resources be it traditional or orthodox which is used for internal or external application to the human body in the treatment of disease or to induce clam, reduce pains or modify the function of the various system of the body.
- Drug use: drug use is the ingestion, injection or the application of any substance which when taken in into the body of living organism may modify one or more of its function, this includes not only medical also intended primarily active substances.
- Drug misuse: It is the overzealous or indiscrete administration of drugs by using drug meant for certain purpose for another purpose rather than what it is meant for.
- Drug addiction: This refers to a situation where someone cannot longer function without the use of drugs.
- Illegal drugs: This refers to substances that the government considers to be harmful to students hereby discouraging their use.
- Legal Drug: This refers to substance that the government allows students to use because they are not harmful to harm.
- Substances: These are chemical combination of drugs in order words, drug made up of combination of chemical substance and substance can be refer to as those build up charge like alcohol, tobacco, cigarettes and kola nuts.
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