IMPACT OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN PROVISION OF JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN LAGOS STATE

IMPACT OF VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN PROVISION OF JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN LAGOS STATE (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SCHOOLS IN BADAGRY LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)

 

 

ABSTRACT

The study examined the impact of vocational and technical education in provision of job opportunities in Lagos state. A total of sixty (60) people i.e. forty (40) students, ten teachers and ten (10) people in vocational inclined job were used for the study. Data collection through the use of library research and questionnaire. The result of questionnaire and interview revealed that vocational and technical education has great role to play in the provision of employment opportunities. Based on the conclusion, the bedrock technological take off in the stage lie in paying adequate actually, vocational and technical is a realistic answer to the unemployment problem in Lagos State, as a tool for economic and technological growth and advancement which automatically leads to self-reliance and sufficiency through the creation of jobs. Finally, concluded that the success of vocational and technical education depends largely on the attention given to it through finance, provision of adequate equipment and facilities, tools and trained teachers in terms of proper planning execution and evaluation so that its purpose could be achieved, as the role its play in the nations growth cannot be over-emphasized.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                              i

Certification                                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                                            iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                               iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                v

Table of contents                                                                                                               vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0.     Introduction                                                                                                                        1

1.1.     Background of the study                                                                                     1

1.2.     Statement of the problem                                                                                   7

1.3.     Purpose of the study                                                                                             8

1.4.     Research hypotheses                                                                                            9

1.5.     Significance of the study                                                                                      9

1.6.     Scope and delimitation of the study                                                                 9

1.7.     Definition of terms                                                                                                            9

CHAPTER TWO

Review of relevant literature                                                                                          11

2.1.     Introduction                                                                                                                        11

2.2.     Dimension of unemployment                                                                             12

2.3.     Job opportunities in Nigeria                                                                                12

2.4.     Meaning of Vocational and Technical Education                                          13

2.5.     Historical background of Vocational and Technical Education                 15

2.6.     Branch of vocational and technical education                                               19

2.7.     Business personality attribute of Vocation and Technical personnel      20

2.8.     Career education matrix                                                                                      21

2.9.     Aims and objectives of Vocational and Technical Education                     22

2.10.  Tabulation of the structure of Vocational and Technical

Education in Nigeria                                                                                              23

2.11.  Various roles of Vocational and Technical Education                                  26

2.12.  Ways of improving Vocational and Technical Education                            28

2.13.  Problems of Vocational and Technical Education                                         30

2.14.  Vocational and Technical Education in 6-3-3-4 Education System          31

2.15.  Misinterpretation of policy and public perception of

Vocational and Technical Education                                                                 32

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology                                                                                                    33

3.0.     Introduction                                                                                                                        33

3.1.     Research design                                                                                                      34

3.2.     Population of the study                                                                                        34

3.3.     Sample and sampling techniques                                                                      34

3.4.     Research instrument                                                                                             35

3.5.     Validity of the instrument                                                                                    35

3.6.     Reliability of the instrument                                                                                36

3.7.     Administration of instrument                                                                             36

3.9.     Method of data analysis                                                                                       36

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation of result and discussion                                                                           37

4.1.     Introduction                                                                                                                        37

4.2.     Presentation of data                                                                                             37

4.3.     Discussion of findings                                                                                           42

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and recommendations                                                           49

5.1.     Summary                                                                                                                  49

5.2.     Conclusion                                                                                                               50

5.3.     Recommendations                                                                                                 50

References                                                                                                                           52

Appendix                                                                                                                              53

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0.     INTRODUCTION

1.1.     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Unemployment has increases tremendously in our country. It increases today because people are greatly looking for white collar job. The rate of growth of student population is in geometrical progression. While the growth of job has been in arithmetic progression. There is now a call by government on education for self-reliant and this has brought into an issue of vocational and technical education. The promotion of as the focus of New National Policy on Education and establishment of National Directorate of Technical Education.

However, the mass unemployment in the country today is as a result of some factors such as;

  • Rural and urban income differential
  • Defective education system
  • Rapid population growth
  • Immobility of labour
  • Over dependence on crude oil
  • Inadequate infrastructural facilities

Rural and urban income differentials: The wide gaps between rural and urban incomes accounts for mass rural-urban migration in excess of job opportunities in the urban areas. Some farmers even abandon their farms in search of non-existing high income managerial and also arise because of inflated attitudes of young school leavers (from both secondary and tertiary institutions) for white collar job opportunities in the urban areas, which means the failure of modern urban industries to generate a significant number of development effort in developing countries.

In spite of high and rising levels of urban employment, masses of people continue to migrate from rural into the crowded and congested cities like Lagos, Ibadan, Kano etc.

Defective Educational System: Nigeria educational system is white-collar oriented and there is proliferation of tertiary institution and universities, polytechnics and colleges of education that are turning our thousand of graduates whose skill are in most cases not relevant to the manpower policy or manpower planning programme that seriously addresses the problem of employment in Nigeria. Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid to vocational training programme and agricultural education.

Rapid Population Growth: The Nigeria population is one of the fastest growing populations in the word the phenomenal growth rate of the Nigeria population is due to high fertility rate, a declining mortality rate and increasing migration of foreign people from the neighboring countries for employment purpose. The population growth rates are for in excess of the labour absorptive growth of the economy.

Mobility of Labour: In Nigeria today, government depends largely on crude oil as the major revenue at least 80% of national income government neglected other area that also generated revenue such as agricultural set up and so on.

Inadequate Infrastructural Facilities: This reason affects mostly specialist on vocation studied some of these work require electricity and good road to carry them not successful e.g. printing press, show cobblers etc. In Nigeria the level of infrastructure is very low besides, these are some area that lack infrastructural facilities and if this is cater for it reduce unemployment in the country.

Effect of Unemployment: The economists are unanimous in their acceptance of the fact that the phenomenon of human resource unemployment is a problem and deserves the attention of every modern government.

  1. Effect of government
  2. Social implications
  3. Implication for political office holders
  4. Effects on national output and general/standard of living

Effect on Government: The effect of unemployment on government is in two folds; first, unemployment causes the government to lose revenue which should have been collected from the unemployed in the form of direct tax on their income, if they were employed. Secondly, the unemployed are entitled to some social security, payment or other forms of transfer payment. Thus the government is left with lower financial resources to provide socio-economic infrastructures and other economic services that are essential for the rapid growth.

Social Implications: According to the popular diction “An idle hand is the devils workshop” the pool of unemployed workers readily serves as a result for armed robbers, smugglers, drug peddlers etc. unemployment often cause frustration and discontentment, which in turn can lead to vandalism, not economics activities. Additional burden is composed on the government in terms of expenditures required to curb these socially undesirable behaviours.

Implication for political office holders: The unemployment rate is one of the yardstick for measuring the effectiveness of public offices and hence for determining the competence of political holder of unemployment rate is rising and other problem such as inflation and balance of payment deficit persist.

MEASURE TO REMOVE UNEMPLOYMENT

The following remedial measures are suggested on the basic of the causes of unemployment identified.

  1. Population control
  2. Discouraging urbanization
  3. Promote full utilization of production capacity
  4. Fiscal policy
  5. Emphasis on labour intensive techniques

Population Control: The problem of employment in Nigeria will be to solve unless the federal government intensifies population planning and control effective population control will be the most appropriate measure to reduce the phenomenal rate at which the labour force is increased at present, especially in the face of declining industrial employment opportunities. It is therefore necessary that more pragmatic measure are to programme the need for family planning.

Discouraging Urbanization: This is the primary cause of migration to urban area in search for alternative employment and the problem of urbanization such as hosing water and transport, government should encourage the setting up of industries in the rural populace.

Fiscal Policy: Public expenditure should be directed toward those channels which raise the level of employment. Effective implementation of the existing tax incentive granted by bank for manufactured goods export, exemption of tax on companies that are engaged in the petro-chemical and liquefied natural gas sub-sectors, tax allowance for expenses on research and development tax holiday for small companies within first  five years 200% profit tax on small companies in the area of manufacturing, enhanced capital allowance for running an agricultural production can further enhanced capital utilization and production in the real sector of the economy.

Promote full utilization of production capacity: Government through the CBN (Central Bank of Nigeria) should adopt expansionary monetary policy to promote full utilization of excess capacity in the real sector for instance revenue requirement should be reduced to increase excess of the banks there increasing the volume of credit that banks could extend to their customers. This should be supported by the reduction of discount rate to make borrowing more attractive and profitable and the removal of the credit ceiling for further enhance the lending capacities of the bank. Furthermore, government should promote the appreciation of Naira exchange rate so as to low and imported raw materials and spare parts are within the reach of local entrepreneur’s more investment will take place and more employment opportunities will be created.

Emphasis on labour intensive Techniques: Government as a matter of deliberate policy must encourage industries that adopt labour intensive techniques production so as to generate sufficient employment opportunities for example, cottage industries with high labour absorptive capacities should be given priority in the disbursement of National economic reconstruction fund (NERFUND) loans. In addition research and development the adoption of imported technology to the country’s factor embodiments so as to absorb more labour.

Re-structuring: The federal government should restructure the country’s educational system liberal education should be imported up to the middle standard and there should be vocational of education at the secondary level college and universities education should be restricted only to those who attain a higher level of academic achievement. So far the requirement of engineering, medical, administrative, commercial and other higher levels of technical education are concerned, they should be based on a proper manpower planning of the economy in keeping with the present and future demand for skilled personnel.

1.2.     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Among the problem facing Nigeria as a nation today, unemployment is the major point that is affecting the youth and old, especially school leavers. The question is how this problem of unemployment could be solved by main heart of this project.

1.3.     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

  1. To know whether vocational and technical education leads to creation of jobs?
  2. To investigate how vocation and technical education will solve unemployment problem?
  3. To look into vocational and technical education as a tool for economic development?
  4. To identify whether, vocational and technical education can make people to acquire skills for technological advancement?

General Question

  1. Is vocational and technical education solution to unemployment?
  2. Will vocational and technical education lead to job creation?
  3. How will vocational and technical education serves as tool for economic development?
  4. Will vocational and technical education make people to acquire skills for technical growth advancements?

1.4.     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses arise from the course of research. They are;

  1. That vocational and technical education serves as a tool for economic development.
  2. That vocational and technical is the solution to unemployment.
  3. That vocational and technical leads to creation of jobs.
  4. That vocational and technical education makes people to acquire skill for technological growth advancement.

1.5.     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The result of this study will help to find solution to unemployment or it will reduce the rate of unemployment.

1.6.     SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study will only be limited to Badagry Local Government Area, Lagos State. Due to constraint of time and financial factors which would prevent me from carrying out the research of large scale.

1.7.     DEFINITION OF TERMS

 Vocational Education: It is the intellectual and moral training in relation to what on lose for living or ones profession.

Technical Education: This is the aspect of vocation and technical education which helps the acquisition of practical applied skills as well as basic for scientific knowledge.

Employment: This is a state of keeping one self busy. Doing something to earn a living either as paid workers or as one’s personal employer. It could also be earn as a situation where those who are willing, able and eligible to work can find the job.

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