The study was carried out to examine the importance of I.C.T and the comparison between the performance of public and private schools student in Government. The sample consisted of one hundred students from ten schools, five public schools and five private schools. The instrument used to collect data was a self-developed and validated questionnaire on the topic. The data collect was duly analyzed with a chi-square statistical tool. The result shows that the use of I.C.T and students’ performance in public and private schools in government studies cannot be overlooked, i.e. there is a sign between the use of LC.T and student performance in teaching and learning of government studies.



Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of Content vii


1.1 Background to the Study 1

1.2 Statement of Problem 7

1.3 Purpose of study 9

1.4 Research Question 10

1.5 Research Hypothesis 10

1.6 Significance of study 11

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of study 12

1.8 Definition of terms 13



2.1 Concept of I.C.T 14

2.2 Education and Information and

communication technology (ICT) 16

2.3 Government curriculum in senior secondary

school 19

2.4 Development of Information Technology

In Nigeria 21

2.5 Technology and Assessment of Learning 29

2.6 Compute-Assisted language learning(CALL) 37

2.7 I.C.T and student performance 41

2.8 Factors affecting student’s performance in

government in both public and private schools 44

2.9 Strategies for enhancing student performance

in Government in both public and private schools 58




3.0 Introduction 62

3.1 Research Design 62

3.2 Population of study 63

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 64

3.4 Research Instrument 64

3.5 Validity of the Instrument 65

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 66

3.7 Method of data collection 66

3.8 Method of data analysis 66



4.0 Introduction 68

4.1 Testing on Section A 68

4.2 Testing of hypothesis One 69

4.3 Testing on Hypothesis Two 72

4.4 Testing Hypothesis Three 74



5.1 Summary 77

5.2 Recommendations 79

5.3 Suggestions for further study 82

References 83

Questionnaire 86

Appendix 88






Information and communication technology (I.C.T) has become so relevant and nearly a sine qua non in all aspects of life in this contemporary society (Fowowe and Akinkuotu 2007).

Science is the foundation upon which the bulk of present-day technological-break is built. Nowadays, nations worldwide, including Nigeria, are striving to develop technologically and scientifically since the world is turning scientific, and all proper functions of life depend greatly on science.

Owolabi (2004) defined science as an integral part of human society. Its impact is felt in every sphere of human Ufe-so much that it is intricately in line with a nation’s development.

Social science comprises the basic discipline such as Geography, History, Economics, and Government; many investigations have shown that students in secondary school are not very much interested in social science subjects. In Nigeria, the national curriculum for senior secondary school volume VI states the following aims and objectives for Government include:

  1. Define the concept of Government and be able to discuss its essential ingredient ‘ principles, institutions and processes.
  2. Recognize his role as a citizen, especially concerning others and society.
  3. Become an informed participant citizen, ready at all times to accept civic responsibilities, and willing to contribute to the development of the society.
  4. Identify the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community.

The teacher can only achieve all these objectives through giving the right types of instruction to the social science (Government) students, Clark (1997) “it is all too easy for a computer to be seen as a learning resource in the classroom, or solution for students with problems, without clear objectives being planned as to precisely how they will facilitate the students learning.

The Government recognises that students’ performance in both private and public schools shows a dear distinction; this gap has been associated with varying factors such as attitude and interest of students, teacher’s methodology, availability of well-equipped laboratory, academic environment and class size, e.t.c.

Asaya (1995) believed that for any teaching to be effective (in terms of student performance), human and material requirements must be available and harmoniously coordinated to achieve those objectives for which the teaching was embarked.

According to Soyibo (1985), “Most Nigerian secondary schools student exhibit a high, positive attitude towards government and their attitude reflected in their performance”.

Usua (1974) also contributed that student weakness in the West African Examination Council (WAEC) was reflected in their performance in Government, which was due to the students’ negative toward Government.

Using I.C.T effectively and appropriately is now seen as essential to allow learners to acquire and exploit information within every sphere of human activity. Moreover, the school curriculum already reflects the perceived value and importance of developing ICT literacy and information literacy in all students.

Changes in the perception of what constitutes a learning environment have been highlighted in several recent developments which seek to exploit the potential of ICT, in particular the National Grid for learning (NGFL 1997). The NGFL concepts of networked access are share provision of educational resources utilizing the Internet and World, Wide Web (www) technology in schools.

For instance, Lagos State Government, under senator Bola Ahmed Tinubu’s tenure, decided to inculcate the Id appreciation programmes into various secondary and tertiary institutions. It is no longer strange for teachers to gather recent information for effective teaching and learning.

Experience over the years has shown that teachers depend on excessive use of words to express, to convey ideas or facts in the teaching-learning process. This practice is termed the “chalk talk” method. Today advances in technology have made it possible to produce materials and devices that could be used to minimize the teacher talking and, at the same time, make the massage dearer, more interesting and easier for the learners to assimilate.

However, the performance of students in public secondary schools compared to their counterparts from private secondary schools is worth researching.




There is no gain in saying that the fact that the use of the technologies in education in Nigeria is at the lowest level (Odogwu, 2000); the hardware is non-existent in more than 95% of the elementary and the secondary schools and virtually all the teachers are untrained to use the new technologies (ICT), even the basic infrastructure of uninterrupted electricity for powering the computer not to talk of the communication faculties for accessing the information highway is lacking in most of the town and cities, talk of the many villages in Nigeria.

Uwadia and Okoro (2000) concluded that the present state of ICT facilities in Nigeria is very poor relative to what obtains in some other African countries.

Performance has been seen as a tool for measuring the efficiency of a particular instructional delivery. Nevertheless, performance, especially in terms of students’ responses to any test or examination, is affected by some human and material factors. In this regard, one could vividly assure that students’ performance may or may not vary.

In addition to this, some semblance of computer education may still be available in some private schools; what happens in these schools is mainly an effort to get the student acquainted with the basic model of operation and function of the computer, i.e. computer literacy.

The research intends to investigate the factors responsible for LC.T and the differences in students’ performance in Government in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State, particularly in the Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.




The study investigates the importance of public and private secondary school students in Government. The following are the purpose of the study.

(1) To examine the student attitude towards ICT and their performance of public and private secondary schools in Government.

(2) To find out if the uses of LC in Government will aid teaching and learning processes.

(3) To find out the problem associated with the use of ICT in public and private secondary “school levels and if their performance may depend on some factors such life attitude and interest of students, teacher’s methodology, availability of well-equipped laboratory, teacher’s qualification and conducive academic environment e


  1. Will the use of ICT affect student performance in government studies?
  2. Does a teacher’s knowledge of ICT affect student performance in government studies?
  3. Will the student’s attitude toward ICT affect their performance in government studies?


The research hypothesis for the study will be stated in a null from (H)

H01: There is no significant relationship between I.C.T use and student performance in government studies.

HO2: There is no significant relationship between teacher knowledge of ICT and student performance in government studies.

H03: is no significant relationship between student attitude toward ICT and their performance in government studies.


Information and communication technology (ICT) has become so relevant and nearly a sin-qua- non in all aspects of our life. The teaching and learning of social science is not an exception; however, it is not out of context to say that students cannot acquire the basic skill and knowledge in biology without Information and Communication Technology (ICT).

The result from this research study will be private basic for effective teaching, guidance and administration of Government and other social science-oriented subjects, basically those similar and related to Government at the senior secondary school level.

The findings of this study will also be useful in developing new methods and approaches for effective performance and learning Government. The use of ICT by the teacher aid the basic skill in teaching and learning outcomes in the school setting. It equally improved the teacher’s skills, techniques and knowledge; this will late reflect in the learning and performance of the study.

Teachers can use the methods and approaches to enhance students’ performance in Government.


The study examines the importance of ICT and its effect on the teaching and learning of Government in senior secondary schools (public) in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.

This study will also focus mainly on comparing the performance of students in Government in both public and private secondary schools. This research is limited to only government students in selected secondary schools in education districts where six (6) schools were selected in public and private secondary schools, respectively.


I.C.T. Information Communication Technology

GOVERNMENT: A group of people governing a country or state.

PERFORMANCE: Therefore, the ability to do something using skills to solve academic problems can be measured. This could be poor, average or good.

PRIVATE SCHOOL: A school that receives no money from the Government and where their parents pay for the education of the students.