PREVALENCE AND EFFECTS OF MALARIA AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE ( A CASE STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE ).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table contents v-vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1-2
1.2. Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4. Significant of the Study 4-5
1.5. Research Question 5
1.6 Research Hypothesis 6
1.7 Limitation of the Study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 7-8
2.0 Introduction 9
2.1 Species 9-10
2.2 Symptoms 11-12
2.3 Medication 12
2.3 Vaccines 13-14
- Suppressive Prophylaxis 14
2.5 Causal Prophylaxis 14-15
2.6 Regimens 15-17
2.7 Life Cycle 17-19
2.8. Recurrent Malaria 19-20
2.9 Pathogenesis 20-24
2.9 Genetic Resistance 24-25
2.10 Malaria Hepatopathy 25-26
2.11 Diagnosis 26
2.12 Method of Prevention 27
2.13 Vector Control 27-30
2.13 Complications 30-31
2.14 Prevention 32
3.0 Research Methodology & Design
3.1 Design of the Study 33
3.2. Target Population 33
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 34
3.4. Research Instrumentation 34
3.5 Sampling Techniques 30
3.6 Validity of Instrument 35
3.8 Method of Data Collection 35-36
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 36
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 37-50
4.2 Discussion of Findings 50-51
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 52
5.2 Conclusion 52
5.3 Recommendation 53
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Malaria is one of the most widespread infections of our time, taking the lives of almost one million people in a year (World Malaria Report, 2010). According to the center for disease control and prevention (2010), Malaria is the 5th cause of death from infectious diseases worldwide.
The centre for diseases central and prevention also discovered that malaria is the 2nd leading cause of death from infectious diseases in Africa, after HIV/AIDS. The roll back malarial website propounds that malaria is also a primary cause of poverty in Africa; malaria has been estimated to cost Africa more than USS 12 billion every year in lost GDP. Malaria traps people in poverty and undermines the development of some of the poorest countries in the world.
The roll back malaria website states that the majority of the cases and deaths (85%) from malaria are found in sub-saharan Africa. Malaria control still remains a challenge in Africa where 45 countries including Nigeria are endemic for malaria and about 588 million people are at risk. The recent world malaria report (2010) indicates that Nigeria accounts for a quarter of all malaria cases in the 45 malaria endemic countries in Africa.
WHO(2010) reported that Lagos is an area of stable malaria transmission, hence the need to discover the prevalence and effect of malaria among students, senior secondary school students, of Surulere Local Government Area, a local government in Lagos State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the efforts of the government and other agencies such as the WHO, UNICEF and other programmes like the roll back malaria programme, reports from these programmes create the impression that the efforts to control malaria have not been effective.
There are reports of up to 50% reduction in malaria episodes and deaths in some African countries between 2000 and 2006, (WHO malaria), reports from Nigeria have not shown significant reduction in the episodes and deaths of malaria. This study attempts to discover the prevalence and effects of malaria among senior secondary students in Surulere Local Government Lagos State, Nigeria.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study tends to investigate the following:
– To find out the prevalence of malaria, among the student in selected schools in surulere local government
– To find out the effect of malaria among the students
– To find out their knowledge on the prevention of malaria
– To find out the factors affecting their practice of preventive measures
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will provide useful information about the prevalence, effect and practices of malaria prevention methods that will aid in health educating
Individuals in clinics and schools. The study will provide information to policy makes that will assist in the reduction and elimination of malaria.
The study will shed light on grey areas in the knowledge and practice of malaria prevention measures among secondary school students, this will reduce the incidence of malaria among the resulting in reduction in hours lost from schools as a result of malaria and will be of immense benefit to the individual student, society and the nation of Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Is there any difference between tribe and occurrence of malaria among secondary schools in Surulere local government.
- Is there any differences between religious practices and the mode of treatment for malaria
- Is there any relationship between the sexes of the students and incidence of malaria
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses are formulated as figures of knowledge that will guide the whole study:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between tribe and the occurrence of malaria
H1: There is no significant correlation between religion and the mode of treatment for malaria
H2: There is no significant correlation between the sex of the students and the prevalence of malaria
1.7. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was limited to the followings:
Time Fame: This study is limited by time frame. This research project has to be completed and submitted within a stipulated time.
Finances: This study is also limited by insufficient funds.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
(i) Cerebral malaria unrousable coma in patient with plasmodium falciparum infection.
(ii) Blood Film: A thin layer of blood smeared on a microscope slide and then stand in such a way to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically to investigate hematologic problems
(iii) Agranulocytosis is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous _________ (lowering white blood cell count) causing a high risk of serious infection due to their suppressed immune system, white blood cell, count drops to less than 5% of the normal value
(iv) A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particulars disease
(v) Macaque are the most common primates apart from humans. They are true monkey.
(vi) Malaria Prophylaxis: a preventive treatment of malaria
(vii) Vector: Is any agent (person, animal or micro-organism) that carries and transmit an infectious pathogen in another living organism
(viii) Prevalence: Something that exists or is very common at a particular time
(ix) Effect: A change that something causes
(x) Student: A person who is studying in a school, senior secondary school
(xi) Endemic: Regularly found in a particular place and difficult to get rid of.
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