This research focuses on the Hatchery and Growth Management of Clarias Gariepinus up to table size, making it possible to obtain a season supply of fry and fingerlings. It also contributes to the fast growth of fisheries and has brought about development in the economy of most African countries. A cubic or exponential growth model can approximate the mean increase in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and weight with time over the entire larval period. However, the growth rate indices specific growth rate (k) and the regression coefficient of a cube root transformation of the weight data (b) both vary significantly when measured over successive short intervals from first feeding; in particular, the onset of air-breathing is associated with a significant depression in growth rate. The variation in specific growth rate (k) with larval age closely approximates the relationship between the mean % increase in body weight per day and larval age; however, the cube root regression coefficient does not share this property. In addition to the effect of the larval period, the growth rate of African catfish larvae is significantly affected by the initial density at which they are stocked (between 25 and 250 larvae/1) and interactions between age and stocking density. Survival over the larval period of 80% or more is unaffected by initial stocking density between 50 and 250 larvae/1; however, the onset of air-breathing, in particular, is associated with an increase in fish deaths. The research finding is of great importance to fish farmers serving as an indicator of the physiological status and helping to prevent and control pathologies related to stress. However, our present study revealed that Claris Gariepinus infected with bacteria could be effectively treated with Moringa Oleifera bark extract at 25% concentration without adverse effects.




Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi


Chapter one

Introduction 1

Background of study 1

Statement of study 3

Purpose of study 3

Arms and objectives of study 4

Significance of study 4

Scope and limitation of study 5

Research question 5

Definitions of terms 6

Chapter Two

Literature review 8

Importance of fishing 11

Laming of fish pond 13

Types of lime in fishery 14

Hydrogen ion concentrations 14

The alkalinity of the fish pond 15

The hardness of fish row 15

Feeding of the fish in pond 15

Stocking of fish pond 16

Weed control of fish pond 17


Chapter Three

Introduction 18

Location 18

Material Needed 18

Methods and Procedures 18


Selection of Brood Stocks (Recipient and Donor Fish)

Pituitary Gland 20

Spawning 21

Fertilization 22

Rearing of Larvae/Fry 22

Feeding of Fry 23

Fish Fingerlings 23

Water Management 24

Mortality 24


Chapter Four

Result and Discussions 26


Chapter five

Summary 30

Conclusion 30

Recommendations                                                          30

References 32




Aquaculture in Nigeria is in the developing stage because it has not been able to meet the demand and supply of the ever-increasing population. It is acknowledged as an efficient means of providing food rich in protein sources, income, and employment opportunities for the populace. Madu (1998) noted that interest in fish culture is growing very rapidly in Nigeria, but the scarcity of fingerlings of widely acceptable species of catfish as Here-branches logfiles (Val. 1840)

Background of the study

Fish farming is the act of rearing selected species of fish under scientifically controlled conditions in enclosed bodies of water such as ponds, streams, and rivers, where they feed, spawn, breed and are harvested at maturity for consumption and their uses (up to table size)

By introducing fish into the pond, one has assumed the responsibility for the care of these creatures. This includes feeding them and providing them with a healthy environment in which they can live and hatch. Fish hatchery involves the activitie4s of rearing and procreating fish in an enclosed body of water or captivities.

Blackburn D.Y (1984) defined hatchery as a means or facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially fish eggs.

Fish farming in Nigeria, Brenda Rodgers & Army (1984) opined that the brooders used for the experiment were obtained, mentioned that economically productive aquaculture from a private farm in Ilorin and Minna Fish Market, agriculture is heavily dependent on adequate supply. They were kept separately in 150cm X 150cm seed or fertile egg and juvenile fish in outdoor concrete tanks at the farm. They were fed, stocked the pond, enclosures and other culture systems, and a 35% crude protein feed maintenance ration.

Fish culture today is hardly imagined without the formulated feed before use on the farm and brooders selection. Hatching and rearing of fry or seed in a well-protected condition for easy supply and culturing in an enclosure body. The techniques make fry and fingerlings available throughout the season and are superior to their ancestors due to breeding which improves fish production.

The procreation or propagation of any fish depends on the parental care given to the eggs, larvae and fry. The development of simple methods and techniques for indigenous zooplankton production would not only improve the hatching management of catfish but would also reduce the cost of production and improve the profit margin of hatchery operation because Artemia is expensive due to import tariffs.

Statement of the study

Literature of agricultural science is growing unarguably. However, there are still wide gaps in many areas of it, and for this reason, this study will examine the hatchery and growth management of claims gariepinus up to consumption size.

Purpose of the study

This study aims to assess the growth rate and know the management of claims gariepinus.


Aims and Objectives of the study

The main aim of this study is to investigate the management of clarias gariepinus breeding to identify the use of ova-prim hormones. To achieve this aim, a specific objective has to be considered.

  1. Tracing the historical background of breeding of clarias gariepinus.
  2. Providing information on the agricultural practice of breeding clarias gariepinus.
  3. Establishing agricultural gaps involved in the preparation or breeding of clarias gariepinus.
  4. Examining the hatchery and growth management of clarias gariepinus up to table size.

Significance of the study

  • It makes farmers use appropriate techniques in the breeding of clarias gariepinus.
  • To make fish seeds available throughout the season.
  • To make farmers self-employed.
  • To teach farmers about the management of effective hatching.
  • To maximize profit for the fish farmers.
  • To provide calcium and phosphorous needed for bone development in man and lives stock.
  • To make aquaculture or fish farming students competent and resourceful.

Scope of study

The study analyzed hatchery and growth management of clarias gariepinus up to table size in an AOCOED fish pond.

Research questions

The research questions on hatchery and growth management of clarias gariepinus up to table size are:

  • What will be the survival percentage (%) of the larva (fry) after hatching?
  • What can be the causes of mortality after hatching?
  • What is the management and growth required for breeding clarias gariepinus?
  • Are the materials to be used effectively for breeding clarias gariepinus?
  • Which types of hormones should be used for breeding clarias gariepinus for effectiveness?
  • Does hatchery and growth management influence laboratory testing?

Definitions of terms

Hatchery: An installation or building in which the hatching of fish or poultry eggs is artificially controlled for commercial purposes.

Larvae: It is the first stage of development after hatching an egg.

Fry: This is a young fish or fish seed that has just been hatched to about 0.01gm – 0.5gm length and about 0.1gm – 0.5gm of body weight.

Fingerlings: These are matured fish developed to 3mm – 5mm body size with 3gm – 5gm body weight.

Breeding: is the term used for an animal kept to produce young ones.


Fish is cold-blooded animals living in the water.

Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, e.g. fish and molasses.

Management is the act of control and organism in some processes.

Growth: increase in size, development or weight.