EFFECTS OF COUNSELLING STRATEGIES FOR CURBING ADOLESCENT DRUG ADDICTION
The study attempt to find out the effect of counselling strategies for curbing adolescent drug addiction in some selected secondary school in Lagos State. The sample comprises of four selected secondary schools randomly selected for the purpose of data collection. Eighty (80) questionnaires were administered to each school and responses were analyzed. The findings were subjected to chi-square and t-test analysis method, two hypotheses were raise or formulated, one was accepted and the second was rejected. Some recommendations were made, such as the federal and state government should make effort on establishing drug education programmes for adolescent among others.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
- Background of the study 1
- Statement of the Problem 5
- Purpose of the Study 6
- Significance of the Study 6
- Research Questions 9
- Research Hypotheses 10
- Limitation/Scope of the Study 11
- Definitions of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
- Introduction 13
2.1 Concept of Drug Addiction 13
2.2 Types of Drugs 16
2.3 History of Drugs Usage and Addiction 17
2.4 Causes of Drug Addiction 24
2.5 Effects of Substance Abuse and Drug Abuse 26
2.6 Treatment of Drugs abuse and Addiction 32
2.7 Fighting Substance Abuse 35
2.8 Counselling Procedures 36
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
- Introduction 42
3.1 Research Design 42
3.2 Population 43
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 43
3.4 Instrumentation 44
3.5 Administration of Instrument 44
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 45
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
- Introduction 46
4.2 Descriptive Analysis 46
4.3 Inferential Analysis 49
4.4 Discussion of Finding 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Summary 54
- Conclusion 54
- Recommendation 55
- Background of the Study
Students like any other human beings on earth need a lot of things. Their development is also guided by the psychological and physiological needs. They need to belong to a social group, they need to be accepted and also want to be recognized or recognize the presence of others, they want to be loved, and need to love others too and they need to be self actualizing. The home, the school system and the society are suppose to cater for all the needs. For one reason or the other the home, the school and the society may not be able to provide all these needs at the given point in time. These lapses can result to different types of negative behaviours. Such negative behaviours are rape, dishonesty, absenteeism, bullying, stealing, disobedience, lying, nervousness, examination malpractice, cultism, noisemaking, brandishing dangerous weapons, gambling, pornographic, pretense, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, gossiping, gangsterism, promiscuity, hyperactivity, sexual harassment and disobedience just to mention a few. Of all the ones mentioned in this work, drug addiction is chosen as our focus. (Odigwe 2010, Bichler 1976).
The reasons for the interest in drug addiction is not far fetched. Students are getting influenced on daily basis to try the use of one drug or the other to get out of one perceived and unrealistic problem or the other in their daily encounter either as a result of ignorance, peer influence or absolute freedom. It is a global phenomenon and it deserves the observation and attention of the society in both home and abroad.
Adolescent drug addictions are very rampant today. According to experts,” Drug addiction is a complex brain disease. It is characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable, drug craving, seeking, and use that persist even in the face of extremely negative consequences. Drug seeking becomes compulsive, in a large part as a result of the effects of prolonged drug use on brain functioning and on behaviour for many people, drug addiction becomes chronic, with relapses possible even after long periods of abstinence (Klitzner, Fisher, Stewart and Golbert 1993).
Many drugs are abused by the adolescents globally. Such drugs are given common street names. Among the advanced countries of the world “Ecstacy” is a slang used for MDMA (3, 4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine) It is also called “club drug” It is a combination of so many drugs and chemicals. Other names for it are “E”, “XTC”, “X”, “Adam”, “hug”, “beans”, “clarity”, “Lover’s speed”, and “love drug”.
In Nigeria for instance, the drugs are called several names. Among such names are Eja, Ganja, Igbo, Marijuana etc. Others drugs that are abused are efferdrin, codine, all sorts of alcoholic drinks: ogogoro, dry gins, cocaine, heroin, nescafe. One can give a rough estimate of adolescent involved in drug addiction in Nigeria as 50%. For example all cult boys in Nigeria are into drug addiction regrettably, because medical attention has not been able to solve the problems of adolescent drug addiction, this work will stress the need for counselling strategies to solve the problems of adolescent drug addiction in Nigeria.
- Statement of the Problem
Drug addiction has a lot of disadvantages and advantages. Many drug addicts among the adolescent feel that the drugs enhance their performances in all sphere of lifes, studies and experiences have shown that they end up doing negative and destructive things when they get involved in drugs or when they make use of drugs. It leads them to committing all sorts of crimes they would have ran away from if they are in their normal senses and more especially when they stay away from any form of drugs.
Most drug users including the adolescents who are addicted are usually under achievers. They are also nuisance. Whenever they are “high” they commit all sorts of crimes. Therefore, it is a real problem world-wide and this study seeks to use counselling strategy to solve the problem of adolescent drug addiction in our society.
- Purpose of the Study
The following is the summary of objective of the study:
- To examine drug addiction among the adolescent.
ii To find out the number or percent age of adolescent involved in drug addiction.
iii To identify suitable procedure for counselling principles that can help in reducing and if possible eradicate adolescent addiction to drugs.
- To follow up various ways of rehabilitating adolescent drug addicts so that they can be useful to the society after proper counselling.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study is quite significant because the result will be useful to educational practitioners, counselors, social workers, parents, adolescent and the government at various levels. It will help the parents to inculcate and instill the right type of upbringing and discipline into their children who are adolescents. Parents will certainly know how to be closed and be of good influence to their children. The parents will know at early stages the adolescent that has started using drugs and necessary steps to be taken to address the problem. It will help the parents to prevent adolescent romance with drugs at early stage thereby preventing them from drugs addiction.
The study will be useful to all educational practitioners so that they can detect adolescent drug addiction early enough, so as to help the adolescent and prevent the bad influence on other peer group. Since charity begins at home, the parents and counsellors, social workers can work together to help the adolescent. The marriage counsellors, social workers will benefit in that all the strategies on curbing adolescent drug addiction can be used while practicing their profession and while counselling the adolescent.
The result of this study will be useful in all tiers of government because it will help government to look into issues concerning adolescent and family in the society. It will help the government to know how to legislate and monitor the flow and channel of drugs in the society. It will help them prevent the nefarious activities of drug barons and their negative influence in the society.
The focus is the adolescent, the study is intended to make them free from drug addiction so that they can be useful, well educated and become good achievers in the society. The result will help the parents and the society to help the adolescent realize their goals and be fulfilled in the society. The study is interested in protecting and preventing them from drug addiction
Finally, the study is also interested in ensuring that those who have been involved in drug addiction should be helped to overcome the devastating effects as soon as it is possible. Such adolescent needs rehabilitation through the assistance of the counsellors.
1.5 Research Questions
For the purpose of research work, the following questions were raised:
- Can counselling strategies solve the problem of adolescent drug addiction?
- Can counselling strategies be more effective in curbing male or female that are addicted to drug?
- Does peer influence have any effect when counselling strategy is used to curb or control adolescent drug addiction?
- What are the factors responsible for adolescent drug addiction?
- What are the consequences of drug addiction to adolescent well being?
- Research Hypotheses
Based on the identified problems of the study the following hypotheses were developed:
- There is no significant relationship between the use of counselling strategies and curbing male and female adolescent drug addiction.
- There is no significant relationship between the peers influence and the use of counseling strategies to curb adolescent drug addiction.
- Limitation of the Study
This study is aimed at finding out the effect of counselling strategies on curbing adolescent drug addiction.
Ideally, the study will be more meaningful if it is extended to adult drug addiction but this could not be possible due to constraint of time and finance. Therefore, the study has been limited to adolescents (males and females) in some selected secondary schools in Lagos state. It is hoped that the findings can be used to generalize on the situation in the state.
- Definition of Terms
To avoid misinterpretation of terms, the following words are explained as it is used in this research work:
Adolescence – Adolescence is a stage that involves the transition from childhood to adulthood, in which considerable physical and mental changes take place.
Counsellor – A counsellor or a therapist is an adult who has special training to help people sort through their different feelings and problems.
Drug Addiction – Addiction is characterized by someone having to use drug repeatedly, regardless of the damage it does to their: health, the career, family, relationships with friends and the community, as well as nation.
Counselling Strategies – Counselling strategies are approaches used in changing individual’s behaviour
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