THE INFLUENCE OF THE FAMILY ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
This study focused on the influence of the family on the academic performance of students in Junior Secondary Schools. This write up looked into different areas like: the styles of child-rearing, factors relating to parenting, which includes: parental education, socio-economic status, family composition, size and poverty etc. This was done by using data from three schools randomly selected from Ojo Local Government students in Junior Secondary Schools.
The results showed that the family can positively or negatively influence the students achievement in school. Students may be low-performing, under achieving or first graders in school depending on the style of child rearing adopted in their family.
Administrative parenting is linked to many aspects of competence. These include an unbeat mood, self-control, task persistence, cooperativeness, high self-esteem, social and moral maturity, achievement motivation and school performance. The break down of the original family and single parenting, the permissive and neglectful parenting style, as well as a negative and discordant atmosphere in the family were found to increase the problems at school, and later in turn, the authoritative and authoritarian parenting were found to be beneficial to the development of good performance in school.
The family play an important role in the development of students in general, the way in which parents respond to tutors and control their children seem to significantly affect the development of self related beliefs, cognitive, and attributional achievement strategies, which in turn influences school performance.
These result suggest that children with learning difficulties could be helped at school by providing parents with counseling to support them in their parenting. Efforts should also be made to provide psychological counseling to support the children’s psychological well being, especially when they have problems within their families.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vii
1.1 Background of the Problem 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
1.3 Research Questions 7
1.4 Scope of the Study 8
1.5 Purpose of the Study 9
1.6 Significance of the Study 9
1.7 Limitation to the Study 10
1.8 Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Meaning of Family 11
2.2 Family Structure 12
2.2i Parental Separation and Divorce 12
2.2ii Blended Family 13
2.2iii Never Married/Single Parent Families 14
2.3 The Influence of Home on Academic Achievement 16
2.3i Poverty Stricken Home and Pupils Academic Achievement 16
2.4 Socio-Economic Status and Academic Achievement of Pupils 17
2.5 Implication of Parental Neglect on the Academic Performance
of Students in Junior Secondary School 19
2.6 Probable Solution to the Menance 21
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 23
3.2 Population of the Study 24
3.3 Sample and Sampling Procedure 24
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 24
3.5 Validation of Instrument 25
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 25
- Method of Data Analysis 26
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, AND RESULT
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Discussion of Findings 38
5.2 Conclusion 41
5.3 Recommendations 42
5.4 Limitation of the Study 44
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study 45
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM
Education and academic achievement play an important role in modern society, because they direct individuals life paths and provide basis for successful socialization into adulthood in areas such as finding an appropriate occupations, career and standard of living.
Problems in achieving a proper education may in turn lead to many difficulties such as unemployment, delinquency, etc. De Bruyn, et-al (2003). Likewise the family which could be defined as a group of people living together in a house, and are related by blood. Play an important role in moulding individual character to become useful, competent and fit into the society.
The type of family in which an individual is brought up determines ones dedication to his/her academics, it also makes the members of the family peaceful later in their lives. The attachment children form with parents and siblings usually last a life time, and they serve as models for relationships in the wider world. Within the family, children experience their first social conflicts, discipline by parents and arguments. They also learn important lessons in compliance, opportunities, and how to influence the behaviour of others. Finally, within the family, children learn the language, skills, social and moral value of their culture.
The type of family which could be either nuclear, extended, traditional or modern family provide a basis for children’s academic achievement and other related school problems. The children in the family learn to cope with certain demands, it also influences the ways in which he or she perceives himself or herself. Considering the fact that families vary; in dealing with their children, the socio-economic, structural and psychological background, goes a long way in determining the academic achievement of a child in Junior Secondary School. Grolnick W.S et-al, (1989). It has also been suggested that the development of pupils’ cognitive and attributional achievement strategies have their roots outside the school, such as in the family. For example, the way in which parents respond, tutor and control their offspring might be assumed to play an important role. Baumrind .D., (2000).
The influence of the home on pupils’ academic achievements, are well known to educators, psychologists and sociologists. For instance, a child from a troubled home will reflect in his/her academic achievement and vice-versa that’s why they say:
“Every teacher knows in a general way how great is the influence of the home. If a child comes from a supportive home, he/she is more likely to do well at school and if one that is not he will perform poorly. Its bound to be so. The child is in the home, and home alone for the first vital years of his life, and after he goes to school, he is only there for a part of his time. Two months in every year, two days in every week, and all except five hours out of everyday are spent by the child not at school, but else where.
In the same line, with this view, teachers have little impact in the development of pupils cognitive and moral development, due to the fact that pupils spend only 7 hours, out of 24 hours in each school days with teachers. The family here has a role to play in enriching the cognitive and moral ability. A child from a family whose parents show little or no concern for the children born into that family, will decay academically and morally. But the reverse is the case, in a family where they show care and attention to their children. This type of family usually produce first graders. Many studies have shown that when parents are firm, but patient their children tend to comply with their request, and the parents are relaxed than a parent who discipline with harshness, and impatience, their children usually turn out to become rebellious. Walter .J. et-al, (1998) And because children’s misbehaviour could be stressful for parents, they may increase their use of punishment, thereby also increasing the gap between the child and the family members especially the parents.
Moreover, there are other factors which influences family parenting style and capacities and these in turn influence the child’s school performance. Some of which includes:- socio-economic status, educational background of the parents, family compositions, types and sizes; divorce or single parenting, polygamous or monogamous, large or small family and poverty. Parents in higher socio-economic status constantly advice and stimulate their children, also granting them greater freedom to explore. With older children, these parents use more warmth explanations, inductive discipline and verbal praise. In contrast, to parents from the lower socio-economic backgrounds who use criticism and physical punishment. Hoff .G. et-al (2005). Educated parents tend to influence the children born into that family positively, especially in their academics. Since they value education more than the illiterate parents, they help in doing home-works, and they also check their children’s school work. Similarly, children from polygamous family may have defect in their education, since children born into that family will be many and with little or no fund to take care of the children academically. Also, children of single mother or divorced parents display problems associated with economic hardship. Poverty stricken families cannot have enough to support their offspring’s education, they will also have limited access to good health care and nutrition, that is meant to enhance their cognitive ability.
In this study, problems of pupils school achievement and child rearing practices are approached from different family styles or pattern this style may be warm, responsive, attentive, degrading, emotionally detached and withdrawn, which in turn may affect the academic self concept of a child. Lakshimi A.R. (2002). All these can greatly influence the academic performance of students in Junior Secondary School.
Therefore, parents should be geared towards understanding the children born into the different families, thereby using a suitable pattern to raise the children for the betterment of the child.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Student academic performance in the Junior Secondary School level, especially in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state is below expectation. It has been argued that the problem could be traced back to the families in which they were raised. The study is therefore interested in finding the place of the family in managing the academic performance of Junior Secondary students in Lagos state. Its also aimed at preferring certain solutions to the problems stated above.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In this course of study, the researcher tried to answer the following questions
- Can the student’s academic performance be traced down to the family background?
- What are the academic performances of children from a polygamous family?
- What are the academic performances of children froma a monogamous family?
- Does the family have any significance on the student’s academic performance?
- What are the academic performances of an indigent student?
- What are the academic performances of a student from a wealthy home?
- What are the academic performances of a child from a single parent?
- What are the academic performances of a child who is an orphan?
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study examines the place of the family in managing the academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in IlogboElegba Grammar School, Ajangbadi High School, and Awori Junior Grammar school in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state.
1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to examine both positive and negative influence of the family type on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School students. The study would also look into different types of families, and their functions.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Family types play a lot of roles in the academic performance of a child. So this study wants to enlighten the parents on how to influence their children’s school performance positively, through the right parenting and family pattern. It will also enlighten the teachers on how best to relate with the students individually. The community has to accept and deal with the students living in the environment. And finally, it will enable the government to select the test curriculum that will suit the students with their different needs.
1.7 LIMITATION TO THE STUDY
Limitation to the study would be based on the problem of time, and cooperation among the junior secondary school students.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Academic performance: This is the level of understanding of a student in school.
Family: A group of people living together and are related by blood.
Influence: To change ones character or habit positively or negatively.
Manage: To control a thing or situation.
Monogamous family: A type of family that is made up of a man, his wife and children.
Parents: This includes the father and mother of a child.
Pattern: A regular way of doing things.
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