A SURVEY OF POVERTY ON NIGERIAN CHILD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KOSOFE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)
This research examines a survey of poverty on the Nigerian child and its implications on their academic performance. Four selected primary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State, one hundred (100) pupils were used, twenty five (25) pupils from each schools.
Data collected was duly analyzed with a statistical tool, chi-square and the result shows a great significant effect of poverty on the academic performance of the Nigerian child.
It was therefore recommended that steps should be taken to ensure that adequate teaching facilities, relevant textbooks are provided to pupils by their parents, also the parent should accept that their socio-economic background can affect their child’s academic performance but prospects is envisaged that if government should be deeply involved in awarding scholarship, it will motivate people towards contribution to the society.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi-ix
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1-5
1.2 Statement of the problem 5-7
1.3 Purpose of the study 7
1.4 Significance of the study 8
1.5 Research Questions 8-9
1.6 Research Hypotheses 9-10
- Scope and delimitation of the study 10
1.8 Definition of Terms 10-11
2.0 Review of related Literature 12
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 The Concept of Education 12-16
2.3 The Meaning of Poverty 16-30
2.4 Causes of Poverty 30-35
2.5 Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria 35-48
2.6 Poverty and its Implications on the Academic
Performance of Children 48-52
3.0 Introduction 53
3.1 Research Design 53
3.2 Population 53
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 54
3.4 Research Instrument 54-55
3.5 Validity of the Instrument 55
3.6 Administration of the Instrument 55-56
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 56
4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 57
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Presentation of Results 5763
4.3 Discussion of Findings 63-65
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 66
5.1 Summary 66-67
5.2 Conclusion 67
5.3 Recommendations 68
Appendix I 70-72
Appendix II 73-78
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Poverty is a serious threat to peace and stability, investment, promotion, business, Security and Education. Poverty can be said to be state of being poor, destitute, or without money or resources.
Longman Modern English Dictionary defines poverty as “the condition of quality of being poor, unproductive, deficiency or inadequate supply of something.
Chief Obafemi Awolowo saw poverty as a “condition which exists when a person lacks the means to satisfy the necessities of life”, To him, this state of life is characterized under undernourishment or malnutrition wretched and degrading shelter, shabby clothing and total lack of any kind of comfort and luxury. He further observed therefore, because of his malnutrition, and his physical and psychological degrading conditions of living. He is technically ignorant, he succumbs reality to disease, he has little zest for life, he is little or no enthusiastic for what he does and inconsequence of all these, his poverty persist on an increasing scale.
Elegbede (2005) defines poverty as the state of not having and not being able to get the necessities of life. It is a state needing help or sympathy. Prov. 10:5 says the destruction of the poor when one has little value, low quality or poor spirit i.e. if one lacks courage of it is timid.
Poverty is not being able to go to school and knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job. Poverty is loosing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness.
Therefore poverty is defined based on some qualitative measure in Lagos State in over simplification. The state of poverty in Lagos State is shocking. It entails more than squalor disease, unnecessary death and hopelessness. Poverty is the most dangerous social ill of Lagos State society. Poverty has been a very terrible scourge that has continued to torment a greater part of humanity. The significance of this rested on the earlier statement that if the base is weak the super structure will collapse.
This study is to look at how poverty has influenced the academic performance of the Nigerian child.
The analysis of the depth and severity of poverty in Nigeria showed that rural areas were the most affected. Several reasons accounted for this situation, the large concentration of the populace in the rural area, many years of neglect of the rural areas in terms of infrastructural development, lack of information on how the government is being run.
The present economic situation in Nigeria has a great influence on all aspects of human life including Education. Presently, the academic performance of the Nigerian child is very poor. Research shows that a child from a very poor background will have the following problems in his/her academic performance; the child is more likely to repeat a class several times in the school; the child is affected psychologically; the child is capable of performing woefully in his or her academics; the child is not likely to participate in extra curricular activities in school.
The child’s academic performance like any social action mostly depends on situational factor, yet major official investigation and pronouncement about the Nigerian child’s performance have been given predominant emphasis as a result of parental capability.
Brooks and Duncan (2001) compared the child in a home with high income with those in poor families and remarked they are worse in so many areas.
The CBN/World Bank study on poverty assessment and alleviation in Nigeria (1999) attested to the fact that the living and environmental conditions of those living in the rural areas have worsened. Urban poverty is also on the increase in the country and this affects the academic performance of Nigerian child.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Because of poverty that abounds, many parents can not afford to send their child/children/wards to school. No breakfast even to those who sent theirs to School, many programme of 100, 010, 001, no sandals, tattered uniforms, no textbooks and notebooks etc. Many end up hiring such children which is against the child labour law.
The poor are those who are unskilled and unemployed who, as a result of little or no income, are totally dependent on others for the satisfaction of theory daily needs.
Although, previous findings have dwelt on the effect of financial capability of parents on the academic performance of the child. UNICEF reports on child poverty stated that the statistic on children whose parents have low financial capability is very high. In 2001, 11.7 million children were living on poverty and 15% will remain in poverty for 10yrs or more. It also stated that the number of children living in extreme poverty (less than 50% of the poverty line) dropped out between 1993 and 2001 as a result of their parent’s financial capability which has adverse effect on the academic performances of the child.
The above problems are the characteristics of how poverty affect the academic performance of the Nigerian child.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purposes of this study are stated below:
- To determine the impact of poverty on the academic performance of the child.
- To find out the causes of poverty.
- To determine whether various efforts to stem or stamp out poverty are adequate or not.
- To identify the various factors responsible for poverty and based on the findings of these research, recommendations will be made to reduce these problems.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this research project will be of immense benefit to the Governments on the need to support the less privilege ones and their children in the society educationally and materially.
This study will also be of great importance to Local Government Education Authorities on the need to strategize well towards managing primary schools successful.
Research, students, etc willing to carryout related research works/assignments on poverty/pupils academic performance will find this research project highly useful.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Studying the effect of poverty and its implications on the academic performance of the Nigerian child; the following questions will guide this study.
- What impact those poverty have on the academic performance of the Nigerian child?
- What are the causes of poverty?
- How can poverty be abolished in our environment/society.
- What are the various plans governments have to reduce poverty?
- a survey of poverty on nigerian child and its implications on their academic performance
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses will be tested.
- There is no significant relationship between the social economic status of parents and the academic performance of the child.
- There is no significant relationship between government policy and parent’s socio-economic status.
- There is no significant relationship between the performances of a child in private schools and of a child in public schools.
1.7 SCOPE AND THE DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the effect of Poverty and its Implications on the Nigerian Child.
This study will be limited to inadequate funds, time as well as inadequate materials (Journals, textbooks).
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Education:- Education is the sum total of all the processes by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes, and other forms of behaviour which are the positive values of the society in which he lives.
Poverty: Poverty is seen as a condition where a person or group of persons are unable to satisfy their most basic requirement for survival in terms of foods, clothings, shelter, health, transport, education and recreation amongst Nigerians.
Social Status: The class of highly influential personality.
Academic Performance: This can be defined as how well or bad someone does concerning education.
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