EFFECT OF COMPUTER ANXIETY ON EFFECTIVE USE OF ICT GADGETS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
This research work focused on the effect of computer anxiety on the effective use of information communication technology (ICT) gadgets among secondary school teachers. The study sheds light on the ICT and quality of education, concept of computer anxiety and information communication technology while relevant meanings from various authors were considered. Also the factors affecting the use of information communication technology in secondary schools were considered. A sample of one hundred respondents consisting of 61 male teachers and 39 female teachers were randomly selected in the study area for this research work. A self-constructed research questionnaire was used as a major instrument for data collection and the SPSS statistical tool was adopted to test the hypothesis that were generated for the study. The three hypotheses were rejected and the study revealed that there is no significant relation in the qualification of the teacher and the use of ICT gadgets. Conclusions were made that computer and ICT equipments fosters teaching learning process and also offer several promising solutions to challenges that everyday teacher could encounter with respect to using ICT equipments. It was recommended that teacher should intensify that effort in the use of ICT gadgets to enhance effective teaching and learning in schools. Also teachers should be exposed to in service trainings, seminars and workshop.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content vii
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 6
1.4 Research Question 7
1.5 Research Hypothesis 8
1.6 Significance of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Delimitation of the Study 9
1.9 Definition of Terms 10
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 11
2.1 Definition of Computer Anxiety 12
2.3 Behavioural Presentation of Computer Anxiety 13
2.4 Concept of ICT Gadgets 15
2.5 Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) and Quality of Education 17
2.6 Factors Affecting the Effective use of ICT
Gadgets among Secondary School Teachers 22
2.7 Teacher Preparedness for Effective Use
ICT in Secondary Schools 28
2.8 Teachers Academic Background and
the Level of Adoption of ICT in
Secondary Schools 35
- Levels of ICT Access by Secondary
Schools Teachers 39
3.0 Introduction 41
3.1 Research Design 41
3.2 Population of the Study 42
3.3 Sample and Sampling 42
3.4 Research Instrument 43
3.5 Validity of the Instrument 43
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 44
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 44
3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 44
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA OF RESULT
4.0 Introduction 45
4.1 Presentation of Personal Data 45
4.2 Data Analysis and Presentation 47
4.3 Discussion of Findings 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
- Summary 53
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendation 55
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Many researchers have recorded the existence of “technophobia”, as this is expressed with anxiety, detestation, or a general negative attitude of the subject towards technology. With the introduction of computers in everyday life and their radical extensive application in almost every workplace, computer anxiety or the phobia towards computers (computer phobia) consists of a real phenomenon and it can be said that it’s rather the crucial point of technophobia. According to Rockwell (2007) computer anxiety has to do with avoiding the computer on many levels of “encounter”.
Across the globe, teachers’ roles and power of influence cannot be undermined in the successful implementation and sustainability of innovations or national reforms (Albirini, 2004; Baylor & Ritche, 2002). In the same vein, the level of success in ICT integration in schools is not dependent on quality or sophistication of the technology, but rather on the teachers’ readiness and positive disposition (Deniz, 2007). For quality to be achieved in education sector, teachers must be responsive to the modern teaching demands by getting acquainted with technology use. Since the focus of learning has changed from teacher-centered approach to learners-centered, government and agencies of education in various nations are not investing heavily to procure more computers in schools so as to ensure increase access and use as needed (Papanastasiou & Angeli, 2008). It is rather unfortunate that in developed and developing countries, despite increasing technology innovations and increase procurement, computers are still under-utilized in most schools (Jung, 2001).
Globally, Information and Communication Technology is rapidly becoming an accelerator of political, economic, social and educational globalization. Computer technology is the engine of the modern civilization and the driving force of the information age (Ituen, 2009). In today’s global and competitive environment, Interactive Computer technology (ICT) is becoming a widely accepted tool for multi-facet development in view of the flexible, quality services it offers and the potential to revolutionize the traditional education system.
Computer anxiety levels of teachers are significant in the consideration of the integration of computer technology into teaching and learning. Anxiety is a long term physiological construct. The issue of computer anxiety according to Russell and Bradley (1997) has always existed naturally because of human innate suspicious tendencies towards innovations. Raub (1981) described computer anxiety as the complex emotional reactions that evoked in individuals described who interpreted computers as personally threatening. Wong (1999) defined computer anxiety as fear expressed towards computers while using it or when an individual is about to use it. However, it is worth mentioning that a pragmatic total elimination of technophobia is seemingly impossible, but the identification of the levels and strategies for their reduction are likewise relevant and significant. Computer anxiety directly and indirectly influences an individual’s choice of learning about computers and achieving a reasonable level of competency in computers. Morgan (1997) and Brosna and Davidson (1996) observed that a computer anxious person experiences emotions associated with anxiety such as fear, embarrassment, disappointment, irritation, frustration, awkward feelings, feeling of retrogression in task performance, computer avoidance, fear of losing control, sweaty palms, chest pain, trembling etc.
Rosen & Weil(2009) in their determination of the main symptoms of technophobia included the following:
- Anxiety towards any present or future interactions of the man with computers or any types of technology based on them.
- A general negative attitude of the man towards computers, their function and their influence on society, and
Special negative cognitive functions of the man while operating a computer or when considering his future relation with computers.
In most cases, the teacher is key to effective implementation of the use of computers in the educational system and given that teachers have tremendous potential to transmit beliefs and values to students, it is important to understand the biases and stereotypes that teachers may hold about the use of computers and the factors that act as facilitators to teachers‟ positive computer usage.
Adebayo (2008) described that today, improved communication technology has made time and space less complex. It could be observed that this modern age is the age of information explosion in which an average individual wants to explore the information system. Thus, the ability for timely acquisition, utilization, communication and retrieval of relevant and accurate information has become an important attribute for better teaching-learning process.
However, Adebayo(2008) also asserted that the functions of teaching in education process is considered paramount especially when we consider teaching and learning process as the acquisition of knowledge and skills by individuals to enable him become useful member of the society.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to the fact that computer education has failed to take off in the majority of schools, fears are the major challenges facing technological development of many adolescent and teachers in the country. Given this scenario, it is necessary for this study to look into the effect of computer anxiety on the use of ICT gadgets among secondary school teachers. However the following problem was identified;
- Lack of confidence on the part of teacher
- Lack of teacher competency in the use of ICT gadgets
- Resistance to change and innovation on the part of new technological equipment for teaching
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of computer anxiety and the use of ICT gadgets among secondary school teachers. It also identifies possible challenges confronting improper use of ICT gadgets in the classroom both for teacher and students.
On the basis of the findings, the study came for the betterment use of ICT instruction by the teacher to the student.
However, the purpose of the study also emphasis on the following;
- To determine if there is any significant relationship between computer anxiety and the use of ICT gadgets by the secondary school teacher.
- To examine if there is any significant difference between secondary school teachers.
- To find out whether there is any significant difference relationship between computer anxiety of the teacher and students’ academic performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
- Is there any significance effect between computer anxiety and the use of ICT gadgets by secondary school teachers?
- Is there any significance difference between secondary school teacher qualification and the use of ICT gadgets
- Is there any significance relationship between computer anxiety of the teacher and students’ academic performance?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between computer anxiety and the use of ICT gadget by secondary school teachers.
Ho2: There is no significant difference between secondary school teacher qualification and the use of ICT gadgets.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between computer anxiety of the teacher and students’ academic performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work will benefit the researchers themselves, parents, teachers, government, students and the entire society at large. If the result of this research is properly utilized, it will;
- Promote the idea that science is both a product and process in student by speeding interest in computer gadgets.
- Motivate both the teachers and students to an effective use of ICT equipment for effective teaching and learning
- Reduce the problem of computer anxiety among secondary school teachers to a limited level.
- Motivate the parents and government to provide basic requirements of practical lesson for their children in secondary schools.
- Educate secondary school teachers towards innovation of ICT instruction.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is basically focused on the effect of computer anxiety on effective use of ICT gadgets among secondary school teacher of Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research work will be limited to Badagry Local Government, due to number of constraints, which include time factor, financial constraint and transportation problem. For example the researcher has limited time and this will not be able to cover a wide location within a short period. The difficulties involved in travelling from one place to the other also discourage the researcher from covering wide area.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Technology: can be defined as indigenous capacity to create, adopt, diffuse, and modify the hardware of mechanical development in engineering science.
Information: is an entity that arises from set of data, which has been structure and designed towards a particular audience upon which vital decision may be made.
Communication: is a process of information exchange between two or more individuals in an attempt by one individual to persuade, to change the behavior of other individuals.
Computer: is an electronics device that accepts data as input, store it, process it and produce out information.
Instruction: is the process of teaching; knowledge or teaching given: an order or direction given to an individual.
Gadgets: can be described mechanical device or tool (machine).
Anxiety: is the state of feeling nervous or worried that something bad is going to happen.
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