THE UTILIZATION OF FAMILY PLANNING TECHNIQUES AMONG REPRODUCTIVE-AGED WOMEN
This study investigates the extent to which family planning techniques have been utilized in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Five hospitals and clinics were randomly selected: Primex Hospital Igando, Subol Hospital Ikotun, Talent Hospital Egbeda, Plato Hospital Idimu, and Wisdom Clinic Iyana Ipaja. One hundred questionnaires were used and administered to 100 non-health professionals. The administration lasted for two weeks with the return of 100 forms. The statistical instrument for analyzing the collected data was the chi-square (X2). From the data collected, the researcher concluded that societal acceptance, education, religion, belief, and sex would not significantly influence the utilization of contraceptives.
In contrast, cultural beliefs alone influence the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Hence, some recommendations were made for proper contraceptives and family planning methods, e.g., religious bodies should help educate their followers about the various family planning methods that will incorporate the teaching of contraceptives as an effective family planning method. The health ministry should educate the masses on the importance of contraceptives as a family planning method by organizing lectures, symposiums, and seminars to educate the populace adequately.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
- Background of Study 1
- Purpose of Study 3
- Statement of the Problem 4
- Significance of Study 4
- Delimitation of Study 6
- Definition of Terms 6
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 8
- Research Method and Procedures 31
- Research Design 31
- Population 31
- Sample and Sampling Techniques 32
- Research Instrument 32
- Procedure for Data Collection 33
- Procedure for Data Analysis 33
- Interpretation of Data and Discussion 34
- Testing the Hypothesis 34
- Summary 45
- Recommendations 45
- Conclusion 47
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The age-long problem of Nigerians’ increasing population has been of great concern to successive governments since 1960, especially since the 1963 census figure gave the population over 55 million people. Successive government has introduced various measures to correct this annually. With no reasonable success, one of the measures was the introduction of a family planning scheme. According to the maiden issue of health connection January to March 1991, the Nigerian policy prescribed the teaching of family planning to the masses, that are youth, mothers, and fathers of the society.
The overall objective was to reduce the nation’s population and promote the nation’s economy, provide adequate education for the youths, reduce crimes in the society, put an end to unemployment which has become the order of the day, to provide adequate equipment and medical centers for practical assistance of the community, to make sure that young women start and complete child bearing at the proper age of 20 to 40 years and to educate the clientele properly on those issues of family planning. Good techniques have been adopted to make family planning a reality in our nation and stop abortion among both young and old.
The health connection titled ‘maiden issue’ from January to March 1991 recorded that in Nigeria, there are laws governing the issue of aborting, although it is not defined. Section 232 – 233 of the penal code does not literarily state that abortion is illegal except when done to preserve the mother’s life. Irrespective of the law, abortion today is widely practiced and almost as common as prostitution.
In the study made by some eminent personalities in 1982 in Ibadan concluded by Professor O.A. Oladipo and E. O. Otolarin, it was found that out of unmarried males and females who are between the age of 14 to 25 years, a large number of them approved pre-marital sex and have sexual relations, some which resulted in pregnancy and ended up in abortion. It is a well-known fact that the percentage of teenage girls getting pregnant is much higher now than formally.
In daily times of September 12th, 1991, the health minister speaking at the ‘safe motherhood conference,’ estimated that 75,000 women died of pregnancy-related causes yearly, a figure which was one of the highest recorded so far in the world. The second in Africa, another 1.5 million women were disabled or came down with abortion contributing significantly to the high death rates.
In the light of the enumerated problems, this study was to investigate the level of utilization of family planning techniques among the reproductive-aged women and also to determine the factors that have been hindering the adequate utilization of family planning techniques despite their effectiveness among the reproductive age women—Alimosho Local government area of Lagos State.
1.2 Purpose of the study
This research aimed solely to determine the level of utilization of family planning techniques among reproductive-aged women in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. Specifically, this research study was aimed at finding out the following:
- The extent to which equipment, facilities, resources, and methods needed for proper family planning practical works are available and properly utilized in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- The rate at which the program was carried out and the reliability of people’s responses can influence an effective family planning program.
- Need for family planning utilization among reproductive-aged women in Alimosho Local Government Area.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The persistent problem of uncontrolled population, high rate of abortion, women dying at childbirth, infant death, graduate unemployment problem of hunger, higher crimes in major cities, failure of the national economy to match the rapid population growth, drug trafficking, poverty, and illness capable attributed to neglect in family planning techniques and proper strategies to reach people in their localities.
Conclusion: there was the need to inculcate into the reproductive-aged women the reasons for family planning, the skills, knowledge, and appreciation towards effective family planning and make them understand that it is for their protection and long life.
In this vein, it has become necessary to investigate how much equipment, facilities, and resources needed for practical work are made available in hospitals and clinics.
- Significance of the Study
One of the major problems Nigeria faces today is overpopulation. Ajala  said that each individual should be able to plan his family size with certainty. Each child has a right to be born to parents who want the child and can also afford the responsibility of raising him or her financially.
Major Hypotheses –
The major hypothesis for this study is that societal acceptance, peer group pressure, cultural belief, religious belief, and the level of education will not significantly influence the utilization of family planning techniques among the reproductive-aged women in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The following sub-hypothesis will be tested:
- Societal acceptance of contraception will not significantly influence the utilization of family planning techniques among reproductive-aged women in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- Sex will not significantly influence the utilization of family planning techniques among reproductive-aged women in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- Cultural beliefs will not significantly influence the utilization of family planning techniques among reproductive-aged women in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- Religious belief will not significantly influence the utilization of family planning techniques among reproductive-aged women in the Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.5 Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited to the following area:
- Reproductive aged women in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.
- The use of the questionnaires was the only research instrument.
- The variable was delimited to the societal acceptance, peer group pressure, cultural belief, religious belief, and level of education.
- The population used for this research includes individuals outside the medical profession, i.e., parents and adults who visit hospitals and medical profession also in five government-approved hospitals and clinics in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State and clinics in value are as follows: Subtle Hospital, Talent Hospital, Wisdom Clinic, Plato Hospital, Primex Hospital.
1.6 Definition of Terms
- Family Planning: This is a process of helping individuals and couples choose if and when they will have a child. Family planning: this is the choice the couples choose the number of the children that they will have the choice depend on a complicated mixture of social, cultural, and psychological influences, and for the first time in history, men and women have had a good method to allow them to make that choice freely and easily. Family planning is a group of services provided by some specialists through service delivery and counseling with no issue bordering on fertility control. It deals with birth planning, birth control, fertility regulation, and contraceptives.
- Family Planning Techniques: These are the various ways of practicing family planning by different people of different races all over the universe.
- Sex: This is the term used to indicate male and female.
- Societal Acceptance: This is the ability to perceive and understand what family planning techniques entail as accepted by the generality of the populace.
- Utilization: This is making use of the family planning techniques.