THE IMPACT OF MANPOWER TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION
A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO LAGOS STATE
This study aims to determine the the impact of manpower training and development in tertiary institution. Other purposes include: determining problems facing workers in improving their knowledge and skills, establishing the level of attainment of workforce development objectives of Lagos State University, and finding out the relationship between workforce development and job performance effectiveness of workers in the institutions. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. One hundred and (100) respondents were selected from Lagos State University. Three (3) research questions were generated from the literature review. Questionnaire items on workforce development through education and the responses elicited from respondents were numerically quantified, tabulated and analyzed using the Likert scale and percentage. The analyses showed that: an opportunity for training and development was given to all workers in both institutions; most Nigerian Universities do not provide learning programmes to workers; Based on the findings, it is recommended that workers should be encouraged to patronize the learning system to further their education; information and communication technology should form part of workforce development programmes in tertiary institutions, and workers who have stayed long away from the classroom should be properly counselled whenever they are on for further studies.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page I
Acknowledgment iv – v
Table of contents vii
ChapterOne l. l
Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problems 5
1.3 Objectives of study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 8
1.6 Significance of study 8
1.7 Limitation of study 9
1.8 Definition/Clarification of Terms 9
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.1 Overview of Training 11
2.2 Human Resources Management 12
2.3 Human Resource Management and
2.4 Training 16
2.5 Benefits of Training 20
2.6 Principles of Training 24
3.0 Introduction 56
3.1 Research Design 56
3.2 Population of study 56
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 57
3.4 Research Instrument 57
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the instrument 58
3.6 Administration of Instrument 59
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 59
Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
5.1 Summary 77
5.2 Conclusion 79
5.3 Recommendation 81
1.1 Background to the Study
The workforce is a critical element in the development of any nation. Also, it refers to a human power supply by physical and or mental work of people rather than machines. The workforce harnesses natural and material resources to develop the economy of nature, including the education sector. Capital alone cannot move except with the involvement of the workforce. No wonder Marsh (2004) observes that to manage men, money, materials and machines, the labour force requires continual study, high performance and righteous self–discipline. According to him, managers must be in continual education and training throughout their working lives. A man who ceases to embrace new knowledge becomes a waste asset to himself, his employers, and the community. Workforce development is undertaken through formal and non-formal education to make workers useful to themselves and the group they are working for (Okotoni & Erero,2005). the emerging challenge of developing organisational cultures supports the acquisition, sharing and management of knowledge for improving business practice and processes (Cedetop, 2002). Meanwhile, workforce development or human resources development refers to improving knowledge, skill, attitude and endowment of the labour force to bring about sustainable economic growth.
An increasing number of tertiary institutions, including newly approved universities, polytechnics, and colleges of education in Nigeria, are offering part-time evening weekend and sand witch course programmes to meet the needs of working adults in all sectors of the economy without disturbing the normal full-time programmes being offers originally. Many universities and polytechnics are encouraging their workers, academics and non-academics staff to obtain further education or pursue post-graduate programmes in various disciplines. These institutions still sponsor their academic staff for local and international conferences to keep their feet for academic work. The non-academic workers are not left behind. They are motivated to join professional groups, and from time to time, they are sponsored to take part in one workshop or the other to expose them to new ideas, knowledge and skills. Insaido (2001) ascertain this fact as he sees human resource development or workforce development as a “process of education through which a trainee acquires the needed skills, knowledge and attitude from training organisation”. To buttress, Insaido (Ajao, 2001) said that the acquisition of needed skills by a trainee determines such workers’ presence and future relevance in an organization, pointing out that trained workers are assets to any organization that employs them. Thus, institutions have become necessary to provide long and systematic training and development programs for their workers. Every aspect and activity of any institution, including universities, involves people. For instance, the Vice-Chancellor will not be successful until he has competent employees beneath him who are well equipped with the skills, talent and knowledge required to impart knowledge to the students.
Managing universities requires staffing them with competent personnel. The formal educational system does not adequately teach specific job skills for a position in a particular institution. Few institution employees have the skills, knowledgeability and competencies (SKAC) needed to work. As a result, many require extensive training to acquire the necessary SKAC to make a substantive contribution to the university‘s growth (Barron and Hagert 2003).
Therefore, this research looks at the impact of workforce training and development in tertiary institutions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of training and development for workers in a tertiary institution cannot be over emphasized. Despite its apparent merit, there are still many employers, particularly in the education sector, who do not commit sufficient funds to the development of the employees. They consider staff development a waste of meagre resources because of the high cost involved, although most employees appear to have positive feelings about the usefulness of training and development and would want to engage in them.
In Nigeria, several tertiary institutions have a staff of different academic statuses. The principal criterion for promoting employees from one level to the other is the worker’s productivity defined in output and publications in refereed national and international journals and textbooks in the case of lecturers. Some of these employees have participated in self-sponsored development activities, and few others have benefited from the institutions sponsored staff development programmes.
One thing that is not certain or that has not been determined empirically is whether those who have participated in development programmes are more productive than their counterpart who have not. In other words, how have development efforts enhanced employees’ productivity in tertiary institutions? And how has training and development been circulated among workers in tertiary institutions?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study includes:
- Determine the major purpose of training and development and the key internal and external influences on training.
- Examine the training and development policy necessary for workers in tertiary institutions.
- Determine adequately the training and development practices and process, including the assessment of training needs, an outline of training methods, and monitoring and evaluating workers’ plans in tertiary institutions.
1.4 Research Questions
- What difference exists, if any, in workers’ productivity before and after development.
- How does workforce development relate to the productivity of male and female employees?
- To what extent do training and development motivate and impact the world of the workplace?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- There is no significant difference between workers’ productivity before and after training and development activities.
- There is no significant relationship between workforce development and gender.
- There is significant indifference between training and development and an organisation’s productivity.
1.6 Significance of the Study
It is expected that this study will inform the management of tertiary institutions that to increase productivity, there is the need to have and retain well trained and motivated employees. It is also to help develop and maintain a quality work-life, which will provide an opportunity for employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualisation. Finally, it is to aid institutions in introducing modern schemes for training and development to meet the challenges of change in the future.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to Lagos State University, Ojo, Campus, and Lagos state staff.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Human Resource Management involves all management decisions and actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the organisation and its employee-its human resources.
Strategy: This refers to the approach selected to achieve defined goals in the future.
Employee Restations: This refers to the intention of the organisation about what needs to be done and what needs to be changed in how the organisations manage its relationship with an employee and their trade union
Workforce: This can be described as the availability of workers to complete a specific task in a given time.
Manpower Development: This is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement by providing how people can grow in their jobs.
Training: Training is a process when under company auspices seeks a devised, coordinated and conscious manner to develop in the employees those understanding skills and attitudes, which will maximise individual’s present and future efficiency and effectiveness of the overall company operation.
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