THE EFFECT OF GULLY EROSION ON HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Gully erosion, the most impressive and striking erosion type, has been recognized as one of the major global environmental problems. Many states in Nigeria are currently under the threat of the phenomenal process. The research was conducted in the Magbon community under Olorunda LCDA. Observations have shown clearly that gully erosion is more prevalent in sedimentary terrain than in the basement complex of Nigeria. A Survey technique and questionnaire were used as a tool for data collection. These erosion activities at various scales have resulted in the loss of life and properties almost yearly. Solutions that have been proffered include public awareness, campaigns, improved farming techniques, cultural methods of gully control, enactment of laws against any activities that favor gully growth, and implementation of suggested solutions.
- Background of Study
Soil plays an essential role for humanity because they provide the basic ecosystem services required for human life, primarily for food production, by providing the environment for plant growth (Sebastian, 2014). Soil provides the pathways through which water and nutrients move to the roots of plants.
Erosion is one of the surface processes that sculpt the earth’s landscape and constitutes one of the global environmental problems. Soil erosion is perhaps the most serious mechanism of land degradation in the tropics (Elswaify,2000). Gully erosion is a well-defined water-worn channel (Monkhouse and Small, 2008).
It is a recently extended drainage channel that transmits ephemeral flow steep side, steeply. Sloping or vertical head scarf with a width greater the n 0.3m and a depth greater than 0.6m. According to Graff (2003), Gully erosion is a V or U-shaped trench in which unconsolidated materials with a minor channel in the bottom but not necessarily linked to a major stream are formed.
Similarly, Bettis (2005) defined a gully as a relatively deep, vertical-walled channel recently formed within a valley where no well-defined channel existed. Gullies can be active (actively eroding) or inactive (stabilized). According to Poesen (2003), the former can occur where the erosion by head cut migration.
Gully erosion is an important environmental threat worldwide and affects multiple soils and land functions. There is ample physical evidence of intense gully erosion occurring at various times in different parts of the world. Gullies are
- a few sources of morphological evidence in the landscape of past phases of intense soil erosion,
- reflecting the impact of environmental change, especially due to interactions between geomorphologic features,
- changes in land use, and
- extreme climatic events.
Gully erosion represents a major sediment source, although gully channels often occupy 5% of a catchment area. The development of gullies increases runoff and sediment connectivity in the landscape, increasing the risk of flooding and reservoir sedimentation (Verstraeten and Poesen 1999, Poesen et al. 2003). The causes of gully erosion are poorly understood, but the processes and factors involved in its growth and degradation are well known.
The research has shown that gully processes have happened even without human influence or interference. Thus, gully erosion is either naturally induced or artificially induced or both. Like in other parts of the world, gully erosion is one of Nigeria’s environmental challenges. The researcher then takes it to be of interest to recognize the effects of gully erosion on human activities in Lagos State, a case study of Olorunda LCDA.
- Statement of the Problem
Erosion generally degrades land and affects not just plants and animals but is capable of taking away human life. Though it is a natural disaster, ways of preventing it can be thought about.
Gully erosion seems to be a factor of discourse every rainy season because maybe the governments have decided to pay deaf ears to this menace, sometimes because they must have tried to work it, but the solution was not long-lasting, and they thought intervening again would be a total waste of money thereby feeling discourse.
Several studies have been carried out on the effect of erosion on agricultural produce; the main purpose of this study is to shed more light on the effect of gully erosion on human activities, while specifically, the study sought to:
- Ascertain the causative factors of gully erosion.
- Ascertain the extent to which gully erosion affects human activities.
- Proffer possible solutions to the problems.
- Aims and Objectives of the Study
This study aims to examine the effects of gully erosion on human activities. To achieve this aim, the following specific objectives were stated:
- To determine the causative factors of gully erosion
- To determine the effect of gully erosion on human activities.
- To proffer possible solutions to the problem.
- Research Questions
The following research questions were proposed to guide the study:
- What are the causative factors of gully erosion?
- What is the effect of gully erosions on human activities?
- What are the possible solutions to the problems?
- Statement of Research Hypothesis
Ho Gully erosion has no significant impact on human activities.
H1 Gully erosion has no significant impact on human activities.
- Significance of Study
The study on the effects of gully erosion on human activities will be of immense benefit to the entire Olorunda LCDA in the sense that it will enable the Ministry of Environment to come up with a strategy on how to handle gully erosion in not just Olorunda, LCDA but in other LCDAs that are also facing gully erosion challenges. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and create a different basis for further research.
- Scope of the Study
The study on the effects of Gully erosion on human activities is limited to the Magbon community, Olorunda LCDA of Lagos State.
- Limitation of Study
- Financial Constraint: Insufficient funds impede the researcher’s efficiency in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and data collection (internet, survey techniques).
- Time Constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with day-to-day activities and other academic activities, limiting the efficiency in sourcing relevant materials and data.
- Government curfews: Due to the pandemic spread of the Coronavirus, everyone has been ordered to stay home and stay safe. Also, the protests in society also limited the effective sourcing of relevant data and materials.
- Definition of Terms
- Effect: Effect could be referred to as a change resulting from an action or other course. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the effect is something that inevitably follows an antecedent.
It is also referred to as the extent to which something succeeds. The effect is a change that is a result of an action.
- Erosion: Erosion is eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents. It is a natural process of soil removal and transportation through the action of erosive agents such as water, wind, gravity, and human disturbance. It remains the world’s largest environmental problem threatening both plants and animals.
- Gully: Gully is a ravine formed by the action of water. It is a deep channel caused by running water. Gullies move by headward erosion or by slumping of the side walls. They are relatively permanent steep-sided water courses that experience ephemeral flows during rain storms. Gilles is extended drainage, channels with steep sides, steeply sloping or vertical head scarf with a width greater than 0.60m.
- Gully Erosion: Gully erosion happens when runoff concentrates and flows strongly enough to detach and move soil particles. Gully depth is often limited by the depth of the underlying rock, which means gullies are normally less than 2m deep. However, gullies may reach 10-15m on deep alluvial and colluvial soils.
Gully erosion is soil removal along drainage lines by surface water runoff. Unless steps stabilize the disturbance, gullies will continue to move by headward erosion or by slumping the side walls. According to Graf (2003), Gully erosion is a V or U-shaped trench in which unconsolidated materials with a minor channel in the bottom but not necessarily linked to a major stream are formed. Gully erosion is the most impressive and striking erosion type. Gully development may be triggered by soil cultivation or grazing, increased runoff from land use, and runoff concentration caused by waterways, furrows, fences, or roads.
Gulling is one of many natural processes that shape the earth’s surface and represents a manifestation of catchment stability. Gullies can be classified based on length, depth, shape, and morphology. It is only when gullies threaten humankind that they represent a hazard.
- Human Activities: these are the various actions done by humans. These refer to the day-to-day actions performed by humans. Human activities are the actions for recreation, living, or necessity done by people. For instance, it includes leisure, entertainment, industry, recreation, war and exercise, farming, construction, and mining.