IMPLICATION OF CELL PHONE USAGE ON STUDY PATTERNS OF TEENS
The research study was carried out to assess the Implication of Cell Phone usage on study patterns of teens. In realizing this, three research questions and hypotheses were formulated and tested. Some magazines, newspapers, textbooks, journals, and internet-based materials were collected, used, and reviewed. A questionnaire formed the major instrument to collect data from the respondents (students within Badagry Local Education District). Chi-square (inferential statistics) was used to analyze the data collected through a questionnaire. The findings show that cell phone usage has an effect on teenagers’ level of concentration during classroom activities or personal reading, that there is a significant relationship between students’ academic performance and cell phone usage, and that the prevalent use of cell phones has disrupted normal learning process of teens and their psychological well being. In order to bring about a positive learning environment, the researcher implores school administrators and educational leaders to enforce a complete ban on the usage of cell phones by teenagers in both primary and secondary schools in order for a meaningful and worthwhile learning process to take place. The study concludes with a summary, implications of the study, and relevant suggestions for further studies.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Purpose of Study 9
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 Research Hypotheses 10
1.6 Significance of Study 11
1.7 Delimitation of the Study/Scope of Study 11
2.0 Literature Review 12
2.1 History of cell phones 12
2.2 The various features/functions offered
by cell phones 19
2.3 Cell phone usage in Nigeria 24
2.4 Effect of internet data services on
Nigerian students 30
2.4.1 Political 33
2.4.2 Cultural 34
2.4.3 Security Threat 34
2.4.4 Sexual Solicitation 35
2.4.5 Addiction 36
2.5 Roles of teachers and parents in students’
cell phone usage 36
2.6 Implication of cell phones on students
and their academic performance 40
2.7 Cell phone usage and students’ level of
concentration during classroom activities 42
- The implication of cell phone usage on students
learning processes and their psychological
well being 46
3.0 Research methodology 49
3.1 Research design 49
3.2 Population of study 49
3.3 Sample and sampling techniques 50
3.4 Research instrument and instrumentation 50
3.5 Validity of instrument 51
3.6 Reliability of instrument 51
3.7 Administration of instrument 52
3.8 Method of data analysis 52
4.0 Data analysis 53
4.1 Presentation of table and discussion 53
4.2 Testing of hypotheses 60
4.3 Discussion of results of the hypotheses 66
5.0 Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation 69
5.1 Summary 69
5.2 Conclusion 70
5.3 Implication of study 71
5.4 Recommendation 72
5.5 Suggestions for further studies 72
Appendix A 77
Appendix B 81
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The first mobile telephone call was placed in St. Louis, Missouri, on June 17, 1946, from a telephone set installed in an automobile. The first mobile telephone cell resulted from more than 10 years of work by Bell Labs scientists Alton Dickieson, D. Mitchell, and H.I Rome. After much modification, in 1973, mobile telephony was further modified into a handheld mobile phone by Motorola researcher and executive Martin Cooper. Nigeria was added to the list of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) in 2001. She was liberated from the shackles of once powerful but now virtually insignificant national telecoms monopoly NITEL. Nigeria breathed a sigh of relief prior to the introduction of Econet (now Airtel) and MTN, which both launched their GSM mobile services in 2001. Thanks to cell phone and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) operators, Nigerians now enjoy services like mobile TV, POS (Point of Sale Terminal), affordable internet services, mobile tracking services, cheaper international calls, and mobile internet banking. Nigerians have taken their place on Facebook, Yahoo, Gmail, Twitter, and Google, with millions of them visiting these sites via cell phones daily.
Cell phone usage by teenagers is mostly parent initiated; Kantrowitz and Tyre (2006) cited that 10.41% of communication records on students’ cell phones are major to their parents, and the proliferation of the device has made its market price drop considerably. Coghill (2001) comments are “the most radioactive domestic appliance ever invented,” making cell phones one of the most indispensable electronic appliances. Katz (2005) asserted that one out of six people worldwide now has a mobile phone, supported by Baskerville Communication (2007). In 2010, the expected global cell phone users would be 3 billion. Age has consistently been one of the most important factors in predicting cell phone usage. Younger teens, particularly 12 years olds, are less likely than other teens to have a cell phone. According to Lenhart et al. (2010), it was found that in 2004, 18% of 12 years old had a cell phone, and 68% of 17 years old had a phone on their while in September (2009), 58% of 12 years old have a cell phone compared with 73% of 13 years old and 83% of 17 years old among the US adolescent. Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the life of teens today, with ownership cutting across demographic groups.
Parents need access to their children to know they are safe, but this cell phone has several implications for these teenagers’ study patterns. Society has come to a point where living without cell phones is ludicrous. Teenagers own cell phones to sustain contact with friends; however, the parents of these teenagers want their children to have them for security purposes. Cell phones carry multiple benefits, but this technology lies in a dualism that teeters precariously between the benefits and negative effects of cell phone usage, especially for teenagers.
Gaby (2008) of Sahlgren’s Academy Gothenburg, Sweden, researched cell phone usage and sleep patterns in teens; the result shows that teens who have been exposed to phones exhibit chronic restlessness, a reliance on stimulating drunks, difficulty falling asleep at night, disrupted sleep and an inclination towards fatigue and stress. It was further stated that phone usage has an average of 23.7% negative effect on students’ academic performance (Kay H, 2008). Text messaging and other features on cell phones like the browser and internet usage lead to various addictive properties, which isolate their users from others (Kraut et al., 1998) and negatively impact academic performance (Kubey et al., 2001). Simon (2001) also asserted that heavy users of mobile phones report feeling vibration when there are none or feeling as if they are wearing a cell phone when they are not; this particular phenomenon of phantom vibration, he termed “fauncealarm.” All these, in retrospect, have significant implications on these teenagers’ study patterns and can result in psychological disorders that can inhibit studying or escalate various deviant behaviors and result in zero learning.
Due to the proliferation of the device in the classroom environment, many laws have been enacted by different tiers of the educational administration to combat the incessant distraction and diversion caused in the learning process. Despite the prohibition of this device by various school authorities, most students are often seen with the device in and outside the classroom. The cell phone provides teenagers with instant network communication and entertainment in the classroom; therefore, students are distracted from lessons to text and play games, and sometimes they become daring to call others. Cell phone ringers, alarms, and ring tones disrupt the flow of lessons and the attention of every other teenager in the room/classroom and the teachers likewise. Also, the camera and text messaging service can be used for cheating in tests and examinations, which is largely why most Nigerians teenagers buy the phone before sitting for examinations and going to colleges, to have a means by which they can perpetrate various malpractices. This, nevertheless, encourages active study habits from the teenagers and is also largely responsible for a decline in academic performance and standards in secondary schools across the country.
Cell phones are so pervasive that two students can be seen standing face to face talking to each other on their respective phones. When a student accidentally drops and breaks a cell phone, it is often heard that it is my “life.” Research suggests that people or everyone who uses cell phones feel the phone is part of them and that they are not whole without their phones since the phones connect them with the outside world. In 2006, there was an 11% decline in sales of wrists watch, which augmented the large number of mobile users across the globe (Eagon, 2006). A work done by Kay et al. (2008) suggests that out of 84 students who are asked to fill a questionnaire, the data collected indicated that 55.8% of the students report that they spend three hours or less on their cell phone daily and 44.8% spend four hours daily or more on their phone. It was also found that 60.6% report that cell phones seldom or never assist them in learning outside the class. However, this data has gained momentum due to the “ubiquitousness” of smartphones, such as “As the Blackberry,” which is widely used worldwide with the iPhone also. These two cell phone types offer many features that make them addictive and are seen as indispensable. Teenagers, even adults, are seen concentrating so much on this device more than their actual academic work.
Cell phone features, such as texting/sexting, are very popular among teens. Over 90% of both parents and teens agreed that they like cell phones because they can “keep in touch no matter where they are” (Lenhart et al., 2010). Teens have found that they gained more independence and freedom through owning a cell phone that allows them to communicate with their parents and that they often use voice calling to seek out social support when needed to discuss personal matters (Lenhart et al., 2010). The risk of having this device is increasing daily. The features encouraging addiction to this device are daily being introduced, online pornography or sexual solicitation and predation, sexting, cyber bullying, dangers of exposure to violence, problematic and illegal content, and privacy violations. With this increase, the study patterns of these teenagers are to the extreme insignificant, and lackadaisical. Most students (teenagers) place more priority on their cell phones than on academic work or performance. There are abreast of varying information which becomes a subject of discussion in the classroom and outside the school premises; they are engrossed with their phones that some skip dinner and are found in isolation (Krant et al., 2005). It is, therefore, necessary to examine the implication of this device on teenagers’ study patterns and academic achievement.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The frequency of phone usage by teens has led to poor study patterns and a decline in the academic performance of most teens.
Teenagers are seen in most schools and municipalities with varying models of cell phones. Ofcom’s survey of 2011 of the American teenagers was downright scary. Sixty percent of kids are addicted to their phones. They say they are easily distracted by their phones during dinner or in the classroom, and forty-seven percent of the teens even said they take their phones with them into the bathroom. The main focus of this research is how the use of different brands and models of cell phones affects teens’ study patterns and academic performance.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The research work intends to quantitatively and qualitatively examine the implication of cell phones on study patterns of teens. This research will specifically
- Examine the effect of cell phones on teens’ level of concentration in class
- Evaluate the extent to which cell phones affect the academic performance of teens in school
- Examine the implications of cell phones on teens’ study habits and psychological state of mind
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research is designed to address the following research questions.
- What effect do cell phones have on teenagers’ level of concentration during classroom activities or personal reading?
- Is there any significant relationship between cell phone usage and teens’ academic performance?
- How has the prevalent usage of cell phones disrupted teens’ normal learning process and psychological well-being?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The research hypothesis is stated below
Ho: There is no significant effect cell phone usage has on teenagers’ level of concentration during classroom activities or personal reading
Ho: There is no significant relationship between students’ academic performance and cell phone usage
Ho: There is no significant effect the prevalent use of cell phones has on the disrupted normal learning process of teens and their psychological well being
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of the study provides a basis for considering the use of cell phones by teenagers towards attaining a proper study pattern. It is also believed that the findings of this study will provoke further research in knowing the implication of cell phone usage on study patterns’ of teens by curriculum planners, school management, parents, student, and other educational bodies.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY/SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses mainly on the implication of cell phone usage on study patterns’ of teens using selected schools in Badagry Local Government Education Area [LGEA] of Lagos State.