UTILIZATION OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS (A CASE OF FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA AND MAIZE IN PRODUCTION OF SOME LOCALLY MADE FOOD)
This study attempts to look into the utilization of local resources in the development of entrepreneurial skills: A case of fermentation of cassava and maize in the product of some locally made food.
The researcher observed the society of some starch contained food and high rate of jobless people who are physical and mentally alright in the society. This prompted the research work on how local resources can be practically utilized to make fermented food available and still create more job opportunities for the populace.
Tuber crop like cassava, when properly processed, can be made into garri, fufu, cassava flour etc. These product serve as staple food to the people.
Hence this leads to development of entrepreneurial skills for individual or group of individuals.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENT viii-ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1-4
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 5-6
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY 6
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 7
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION 9-13
2.2 USES OF CASSAVA 13-15
2.3 USES OF FERMENTED MAIZE 15-18
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 18-19
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 19
3.2 SAMPLING 19
3.3 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS 19-24
3.4 MECHANIZED PROCESSES OF CASSAVA DETOXIFICATION 24-27
3.5 FERMENTATION COUPLED WITH ACID HYDRULYSIS
3.6 PROCESSING OF MAIZE FERMENTATION 29-30
CHAPTER FOUR: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
4.1 SUMMARY 31-34
4.2 CONCLUSION 34
4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 35-36
4.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 36-37
4.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 37
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Education is the vehicle for human development, this is because it allows individual to acquire skills and knowledge required for human development and self reliant. Human empowerment which could be as a result of development of entrepreneurial skill in one’s field. It allows an individual to be self reliant, self-confidence and optimistic, out look in life. Job could be created for many who are jobless by the utilization of local resources as in the case of fermentation of cassava and corn (maize) to produce local food.
There are many different views on who is an entrepreneur or what an entrepreneur venture is. The definition itself is evolving as the field itself comes into the mainstream of business. There have been many originator of business in the past that are equally referred to as entrepreneur. Entrepreneur is the act of setting a small business scale to earn money.
According to L.A, Olawale et al defined entrepreneur as an individual who accepts financial risks and undertakes new financial ventures. The food industries are one of the largest consumer of starch and starch products. In addition large quantities of starch are salt in the form of product in small package for household cooking. Cassava, maize and other tropical starches were extensively used for food.
Starchy food such as fufu, gari, cassava flour etc have always been one of the staples of the human diet. They are mostly consumed in starch bearing plants or in food to which commercial starch or its derivatives have been added. Starch was first obtained from wheat by the Egyptian for food and for binding fibres to make “papypns” paper as early as 4000-3500BC.
Fermentation of cassava and maize in the production of some locally made food such as fufu, gari, flour etc. has been a source of job creation for many people in various parts of the country.
The art of fermentation is an age long discovery made by man ever before adequate knowledge of microbiology. According to Olukoya (1999) defined fermentation as a process that is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphpylation to maintain the production of ATP (Aderosine Triphosphate) by glycolysis.
During fermentation pyrunate is metabolished to various different compounds. Homolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid from pyrunate, alcoholic fermentation is the conversion of pyrunate into ethamol and carbondioxide and hetepolactic fermentation is the production of lactic acid as well as other acids and alcohols.
In addition, the processes of decomposing organic matter, are disagreeable in odour, flavour and texture and some are, in fact injurious to health. Many of the decomposition of proteins and fats into these two categories. The preparation and preservation depend upon the production of certain micro-organisms of chemical substances that alter the flavour of the food and are generally inhibitive to the growth of undesirable micro-organisms.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Talking about the locally fermented food, there are many problems to be encountered by the students learning Biology and non students. And this project is aimed at solving the following problems and many others.
This research work is intending to solve problem of lack of adequate enlightenment based on the gain lying in the utilization of local resources for self independence.
The research work will also enhance the establishment of many local industries that will utilize local resources such as cassava, maize for food production.
It will make many people to become employers of employee.
It will also help many graduates who are looking for white collar jobs to have opportunity to be self employed.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to:
- Utilize local resources to produce locally made food such as garri, fufu, pap etc.
- Establish the fact that human can be empowered through the utilization of local resources.
- Practicalize the roles or steps that take place in fermentation.
Further more this study is also aimed at looking at the importance of fermentation in foods, especially in production of cassava and maize.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
As a matter of fact, this research is particularly centered on the utilization of local resources in the development of entrepreneur skills. In other words, the creation of job opportunities through the utilization of cassava and maize in the production of some locally made food such as fufu, gari, pap etc.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The research strongly believes that the research of this kind would be of great value to the entire populace in Ogun state, especially the youths who have not secure any job as a means livelihood, as this reduces the rate of unemployment, intelligent quotient and self independence. It serves as food production for the masses.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Entrepreneur: could be defined as “someone” who acts with ambition beyond that supportable by the resources currently under this control, in relentless pursuit of opportunity, Olawale, L.A (2007)
Fermentation: This is defined as the action of micro-organism on a particular food materials for a period of time, so that the products have undergone very considerable changes.
Food: This can be define as any chemical substance either liquid or solid that contains various nourishment called nutrient.
Organic matters: can be defined as those things that are formed from living things that organized as a system.
Enzymes: are the organic catalyst that alter the rate of chemical reaction in the body without undergoing any changes.
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