COLLECTION AND WET PRESERVATION OF GRASSHOPPER
This research “collection and wet preservation of grasshopper” study was carried out to collect and preserve grasshopper using wet preservation method in the laboratory. The grasshopper were collected from direct visit to the playing field in Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education and also their natural aquatic environment in Jetti-side Lagos State and taken to the Biology laboratory were the proper preservation was carried out, the method employed in the wet preservation of grasshopper began with the collection of grasshopper and preserved them in formaldehyde diluted with water in a jar. It was then placed on the shelve in the Biology laboratory of Adenian Ogunsanya College of Education for teaching Biology concepts.
The research study has shown that grasshopper can be collected and preserved in the Biology laboratory using preservative chemical like formaldehyde solution and stored in a jar with seal.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content vi
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
- Introduction 1
- Background of the study 1
- Aims and objectives of the study 5
- Definition of terms 5
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
- Range and Habitat 7
- Life Cycle 8
- Behaviour in Grasshopper 10
- Management and Control 11
- Species of Grasshopper 12
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
- Research Design 14
- Materials/Tools Required 14
- Method of collecting specimen 14
- Preservation Process 15
- Carding 15
CHAPTER FOUR: Practical Process of Grasshopper
- Summary 16
- Conclusion 16
- Recommendation 16
- Limitation of Study 17
- Suggestion for Further Study 17
- Background to the Study
The classification of caelifera has a convulted history (Dirsh, Kevan and Key 2000) .It is beyond the scope of this research work is to view all the classification schemes proposed by various authors.
The orthopteran sub-order caelifera consist of two infra orders “Tridactylidea” and “Acrididae”. Tridactyloidea, consist a single extant “super family Tridactyloidea, Eumastacoidea” pneumoroidea, pygomorphoidea,Tanaoceroidea,Trigonopterygoidea and tetrigoidae.
The first six super families are grasshopper-like in morphology and therefore grouped in a monophyletic super family group Acridomorpha.
Acridoidea is the largest super family within orthoptera and contains about 11 extant families and other 7680 species, defined by the morphology of the male phallic complex and the lack of basioccipital slit, among other characters (Robert 1998, Amedegnato 1997, Kevan 2000)
Most species in this group are familiar and easy to recognize as typical grasshoppers. Eumastacoidea consist of about 8 extant families and about 1269 species, commonly known as the monkey grasshopper. This group is defined by antennal tubercles and no auditory organ (Flook and Rowell 2000).
Pygomorphoidea contain some of the most colorful grasshopper species and consist of a single family, “PYRGOMORPHIDAE” having about 476 species, characterized by the presence of a groove in the fastigium (Kevan and Akbar 2000).
The remaining three super families are small in number highly unusual and mostly endemic ” PNEUMOROIDEA ” contains one family, pneumoroidea and 17 species, mostly found in south Africa and is known for its unique femoro abdominal stridulatory mechanism. Males have a swollen abdomen that can amplify their call for a long distance (Van Staden 1997) and they are commonly known as bladder grasshopper.
Tanaoceroidea contains one family and 3 know species endemic to the south western U.S and is characterized by extremely long antenna and rudimentary male phallic complex (Rehn & Dirsh 2001)
Trigonopterygoidea consist of two rather divergent families, “Trigonopterygoidea ” and “Xgronotidae” the former is endemic to the southern Asia and contains about 16 species and characterized by reversed male genitalia and foliaceous regmina. The latter contain four species endemic to central Mexico and can be characterized by rudimentary male genitalia and stridulatory ridge on third abdominal tergites.
These two families form a monophyletic group base on molecular plylogeny (Flook et.al 2000).
It has been estimated that grasshoppers annually destroy on average at least 21 to 230 of available range forage in the western U.S. Traditional crises directed chemical control program are economically under certain conditions.
Walkers (2000) contribution was particularly valuable he proposed homologies of different parts of the male genitalia among different orders.
Grasshoppers are peculiar among animals in having some of the largest known nuclear genomes are between 98 and 8900Mb in size and the human genome is about 3400Mb.
It is hypothesized that a major proportion of the grasshopper genome is non – coding. At the same time, grasshoppers are known to harbor the largest amount of nuclear mitochondrial pseudo genes (numts). Which are non functional fragments of mt.DNA Integrated into the nuclear genomes (1994).
Grasshopper are groups of insects belonging to the sub – order caelifera, they are among what is probably the most ancient living group of chewing herbivores insects, dating back to the early Triassic around 250 million years ago (2005).
Grasshopper are typically ground dwelling insects with the powerful hind legs which allow them to escape insects .They do not undergoes five moults ,becoming more similar to the adult insects at each developmental stage.
At high population densities and under certain environmental conditions, some grasshopper species can change color and behaviour and form swarms under these circumstances, they are known as “LOCUST”.
Grasshoppers are plant eaters with few species at times becoming serious posts of cereals, vegetables and pastures, especially when they swarn in their million as locust and destroy group over wides areas. They protect themselves from predators by camouflage when detected, many species attempt to startle the predator with a brilliantly coloured wing – Flash while jumping and ( if adult) launching themselves into the air ,usually flying for only a short distance(2003).
Other species such as the rainbow grasshopper have warning coloration which defers predators .Grasshopper are affected by parasites and various diseases and many predatory creatures feed on both nymphs and adults. The eggs are the subject of attack by parasitoidea and predators (O’ Neill & kelvin 1997).
Grasshopper are in the arthropods phylum and part of the insects class. They date back to around 250 million years ago, making them are of the oldest living group of chewing herbivores insect.
Locust are the surrounding phase of certain species of short horned grasshopper in the family prerididae dating back thousands of years ago, swarms of locusts were called ” The plague” locust would swarm and cause devastating events such as famine and destruction of crops. They would demolish foods of hundreds of pupils until they wasn’t any left, and then the swarm would move on to the next crop. In 2000, the largest swarn recorded by roky mountain locust that was 1,800 miles long and 110 miles wide.
Today, while grasshoppers do not cause famine across the regions, they still can be a large post to farms and growing crops. their swarming behaviours is caused by overcrowding of the population, which increases tactile stimulation of their hind legs. This stimulation increase the levels of genetonin which causes the grasshopper to feed more and breed faster.
As herbivores, grasshopper will feed on any vegetation that is available, their populations thrives in warmer, drier sensation and they can generate substantial crop damage, especially if other’s food sources are scarce, however some species survive on grass, and thus don’t destroy crops or other vegetation. Grasshopper typically cannot survive the cold.
Grasshoppers are found worldwide, they are extreme migratory and will go to where they find food .In the United States, the short horned grasshopper also know as a locust, tends to wreak the most damage in the central and north western states..
- Aims and Objectives
- To enable learners have idea about internal and external features of grasshopper
- To collect grasshopper from their diverse habitat.
- To enable them know the classification of grasshopper (kingdom-species)
- Definition of Terms.
Collection: The action or act of acquiring or collecting something (the process of collection of grasshopper).
Wet Preservation: This refers to the maintenance of specimen (grasshopper) in the fluids to avoid it change from its initial conditions.
Swarming: This is the process by which grasshopper form a colony under certain circumstances become more abundant and change their behaviour and habitat becoming gregarious.
Orthopterans: Grasshopper belongs to the group of insects called orthopterans meaning straight wings.
Camouflage: It is the ability of grasshopper in which the male grasshoppers rub a hind leg against one of their hand forewings to vibrate and make a sound in other to attract mate.
Herbivores: A herbivore is an animal that get its energy from eating plants, and only plants .A grasshopper is an example of herbivores..
Hemime Tabolous Insects: Grasshopper undergoes incomplete metamorphosis. It means having no pupal stage in the transition from larva to Adult.
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