Literature Review

The research carried out on P.T.A. has revealed that much has been done in the area as regards to literature. However, one is able to gather some information on the aims and objectives of the P.T.A. from television, national newspaper textbooks and some seminars.


The family is seen as the biological and social group to which a child is born to which into contact and learn his first language parents (mother or father) gives birth to the child and the child is regarded as the active participant of educational programmes. For these sole reasons, parents within the frame of their right should be able to have rapport with the school and this cane be done in forum. Such as the P.T.A. meetings in which parents can state their problems on the qualitative education of their children.


In 1983 a document was released by the Lagos State government which talked about or states the need for the involvement of communities and associations in the education programme of Lagos State. This shows that the government is aware and is in supports of the activities of P.T.A. in schools.

In that document, guidelines were issued in respect of the ways association would be involved in promoting the growth of education in Lagos State.


The government considers it necessary that representative of the parent teachers association at the school management committee level.


The association gives room for a high degree of interaction between parents and teachers also help them to work as partners in progress for the effective and fruitful education of the child.


Paragraph 5.0.9 of the Lagos State ed policy states that each post primary-institution in Lagos State shall have a board of governors which represent the interest of government and community at the school level and staff of each post primary constitution in ensuring efficient, effective and smooth running of the institution. The composition of the boards of governors shall involve or comprise among other two representatives of the P.T.A. of the school to be nominated by the association and objectives of this board are:

  • To give direction to the management of the school affairs in pursuit of government policies and programmes in such a manner as to ensure the efficient management of the school system at the primary school level.
  • To promote and enhance academic excellence and general quality of education
  • To instill discipline and curtail excess whenever they occur in the school system. –
  • To ensure efficient utilization of human materials resources.


In the state educational policy of 1988 the government published the Parents’ Teachers’ Association governing constitution and standard orders to define the role expected by the parents in the educational system.


Among the aims and objectives of the association are the following:

  • To support the Lagos State government morally and financially in implementing its educational programmes
  • To foster mutual understanding, harmonious relationship and co operation among parents, guardians and teachers in the fulfillment of their common aim.
  • To infuse into the children a sense of security through regular discussion of the issues that may affect their academic performances and general welfare.
  • To enable the teaching staffs have a great insight into the home background of their pupils’ problems and emotional disturbances could be understood with high degree of consideration, sympathy and love.


Without any doubt these few aims and objectives of the P.T.A as highlighted above have brought great responsibilities on both parents and teachers in the running of schools in the state.


The Macmillan family Encyclopedia vol. vi (1980:84) defines P.T.A as a “private organization of parents teachers and school administrators dedicated to promoting the educational, social and economic welfare of age children”


The .world Encyclopedia vol. xv (1967:139) defines P.T.A as a “voluntary organization that unites the forces of homes, school and community on behalf of children and youth”.


Farrant (1980:25) perceives P.T.A “as a means which some schools have encouraged, parents are in to support the school in particular ways”.


Ojelabi (1982:39) sees P.T.A as a body which aggregates the interest of the local community as afar as a school is concerned.

It existed to ‘enhance cooperation between parents and teachers so that both sides can work hand in hand for the benefit of their children.


Oguntuase (1989:28) viewed parents teachers association as a very importance platform for working out what is happening in the school.


Farrant (1980:281) “in the time past, schools have tended to keep parent out using the argument that a professional skill such as teaching must be carried out without interruptions or interference from parents.


Today, this attitude is changing and schools are trying to encourage parents to take interest in the school and get better understanding of what is going in the classroom”.


The role of Parent Teacher association in the administration of secondary school cannot be emphasized. During the second republic, the proscribed unity party of Nigeria under the leadership of late chief Jeremiah Obafemi Awolowo introduced amongst other things free and compulsory education at all levels to attract of the electorates.

This was introduced throughout the controlled states, but we must bear in mind, why tuition was free, Parents, Teachers’ association are also stated in the world book encyclopedia vol. vxv ‘(1967:159)


Promoting the welfare of children and youth in home, school, church and community.

  1. To raise standard of home life
  2. To serve adequate laws of the care of youth
  • To bring into close relation the home and the school, that parents and teachers may co-operate intelligently in the training of the child.
  1. To develop between advocators and the general public such united efforts will secure for every child the highest advantages in physical, mental, social and spiritual education
  2. To give direction to the management of the schools affairs in pursuit of government policies and programmes in such a manner as to ensure the efficient management of the state schools systems at the post primary school level.


Farant (1980:281) stated that parents teachers association “support the school in practical ways such as fluid raising for teaching equipment or helping to carryout building repairs and improvement in return, the school opens it’s doors to them inviting them to share in the life of the school and to discover how best their own children’s education”.


National congress of parents, teachers association organized in Washington D.C. 1987 stated amongst other thing the roles of the body.

  1. They encourage cooperation between home and community to the school.
  2. They interpret the school to the community and the community to the school
  3. They develop study discussion groups in family life education and other area of adult education.
  4. They as well try to improve the child’s environment in home, school and community
  5. They develop between advocators and the general public such united efforts, which secure for every child the highest advantages in physical, mental, and social education.


Ojelabi (1980:39) opined that Parents Teachers Association “helps the general public to know about the opportunities and promises the school has for the pupils”. He further explains that parents teachers association is an advisory body whose between the school and the home with the result that both groups can agree on ways and means of taking constructive decisions

Jenkins et al (1953:332-333) grouped the roles of Parents Teachers Association in three sections. These are the roles Parents Teachers Association should perform for the children, teachers and parents.

  1. It provides an opportunity to become acquainted with the teacher and the school
  2. It enables him to gain a better understanding of his own child through shared information
  3. Allows for intensive discussion of persistent problems
  4. Serves as a basis for planning with the child for the child’s continuous growth.


Help the teachers to guide the child in evaluating his own progress in terms of strengths, and future plans. In light of this literature review, it can be said that when the school and parents ate not united and not working in one accord, the programme of the school may be seriously hampered or disturbed.

Owing to the fact that in many schools educational facilities are inadequate and where there are few facilities these are always in bad condition. One ay to improve helping hands to these schools is through association such as P.T.A.

Moreso, since the introduction of free education (which is for political reasons) at all levels by some state governments between 1979 and 1983 it has been observed that committees voluntary agencies and even parents have become less committed in the provision of maintenance of schools. People now see schools as government property hence the responsibility solely lies on the hands of government. Due to the sacre resources of the government it has-not been able to meet with the needs of the educational sector. Hence the need now arises for a cordial relationship between homes and schools in order to solve these prevailing problems.


The need arises to mould the decadence behaviour of children. The reflection of the society has been manifesting on the children. The students only spend a few percent of their time in school of which the larger part of it is spent at home under the supposed guidance of their parents. It is therefore imperative for the parents to be fully involved in the training of their children.


With the co-operation of parents and the school, some of the deviance attitude of student or behaviour such as truancy theft could jointly be worked upon to bring them to the barest minimum.

Involvement of parents in the running of the school would make them feel more committed in their responsibility as parents towards the upbringing of their wards.


Hence, the need arises for the school to make a forum through which discussions between parents and teachers on school discipline and student’s responsibilities, rights and obligation may be held.


Then the P.T.A. was then established to provide a suitable forum for all parents and teachers to meet and discuss common problems facing the school and also looking for alternative to solving such problems.


Taiwo (1981 P. 91) the Parents Teachers Association (PTA) is an organized association which attempts to bring parent and teachers together in the interest of the child.


Bala (new Nigeria Dai May 1982 p. 20 is of the view that the promotion of the Parents Teachers Association is one of the most important means of improving parents in school activities. He suggested that the school should live their doors open for parents to discuss individual cases that may arise. Such cases may also be discussed in Parents Teachers Association meeting so as to find a lasting solution to it because the home has an important role to play in the live of an individual. Hence, this cannot be overlooked or relegated into the background. The environments and society in which the child grows affects them in different ways. Sometime to the positive side but at other time to the negative side, but with the help of teachers and parents students have been moulded on the part of desirable behaviour which is accepted to the society and community in which they live in.


Kaplan (1950) points out that parents and teachers in their common effort to assist in the personality development for children have created a close inter dependence of home and school. He stated that the important things for parents and teachers to remember are that they are approaching the same goal from different point of view. Both are interested in the common growth of the child.


Rovas (1964:14) in his own contribution said that parents play an important role in the education, social adjustment of the child. He further stated that the home is primarily and institution and the parents he described as teachers who inculcate into the children the social norms the child adhere to in the society.


Okoye (1980:2) also support the view that the family influences the upbringing of the child.


Funso (1980:5) surveying the influence of the family on the child said, “among the several social sub system or social organization of groups, it is the family which exercise the first and the most direct influences on the child’.


From the above statement (Revans, Okoye and Funson) one can easily say that the family plays important roles in a child’s education and as such must work in accordance with the school so that he may grow up to become useful and law abiding member of the society.


Adesua (1987) stated that the home and the school should play their roles efficiently as primary agencies of education, that there would be the need to foster a virtue between the school and the home, nurturing and sustaining a forum whereby teachers, parents, guidance and others interested in education. He pointed out that the forum to do this is the Parents Teachers Association. During the meeting of the Parents Teachers Association both parents and school are normally on their roles which they are supposed to play towards the overall development of the child.

Group captain Golahan Mudasiru (one time military head of state) National Concord Thursday April, 26, 1984 P. 24) also stressed the important of Parents Teachers Association  and said that he would encourage the association (PTA) and individuals to assist in funding education in the state time though education would still remain free.


Former minister of educational science and technology (Sunday times June 3, 1984 p. 5) was also one of the group of contributors on the importance of Parents Teachers Association he said that the Parents Teachers Association is body with vested interest in school affairs. He said that PTA is ndividually called upon to provide helping hands for schools and that the membership of the Parents Teachers Association is automatic in the sense that any parent who has a child or ward in any school belongs by right to the association. He therefore added some functions of PTA which are:

  • It is suppose to instill a sense of community interest in the schools
  • Ensuring that the programmes of schools are relevant to the community.
  • Providing or raising funds to support school projects
  • Improvement in the performance of the students and encourage better teacher students relationship
  • Provide a better atmosphere where learning and teaching could take place to improve students performance
  • Can also help to bridge the communication gap between the parents or community and the school.


Odeinde (1981:9) stressed the importance of homes. The home lays the foundation for the moral and spiritual training of the child. The first person with whom the child interacts with is the parents. The parents transmit to him with their own values and beliefs.


The parents at home teach the child the moral behaviours that is acceptable in the community. The child learns to imitate the parents in all things. The religious development of a child depends very much on the home. Any mistake from the parents will in a way affect the future of that child and the parents goes a long Way in giving a child a bright future and also help the child mentally, physically, emotionally and socially.


Because of this, the school and the home must work hand in hand, the school and the community must of necessity be intimately related for them to have meaningful achievement in the educational system.

Adeogun, (Nig. Herald, May 29, 1982: p. 4) former principal Elelronjare community secondary school in Kwara state of the formal launching of the association of the school described P.T.A. as an important organ in the achievement of progress in the system of the community. He mentioned in his speech some of the important role played in different schools in the country example: supply of pipe borne water, transportation, construction of libraries, building of classrooms, electrification of schools and so on.


Adedigba, the former zonal inspector of education, Ogun Local Government Area in Kwara State (Nigeria Herald, March 23, 1978, p. 3) at government secondary school Ipec during their launching ceremony of Parents Teachers Association said that patents and teachers should try as much as possible to come together in order to solve their children problems. She said if the parents and teachers join hand with the government in the education of the children, there would be little or no problems in schools. She observed that the Parents Teachers Association would be or create an avenue where discussions would be made on the progress of the school.


Ayanmu (1980) also contribute to the topic in question by stressing that the Parents Teachers Association should try to educate parents on how to handle and accommodate their children. This is because with the co-operation of parents and the school, some of the deviance attitude of students or behaviour could be jointly worked upon to bring them to the barest more committed in their responsibility of their wards.


New standard Encyclopedia (1966 p. 23) considers the scope or activities of Parents Teachers Association as covering area as:

  1. Character and spiritual education
  2. Health
  • Juvenile protection
  1. Safety and international relationship
  2. Reading and library services
  3. Legislation, parent and family education


Durojaiye (1976:28) also said that it is at home that the child has the opportunity to re-examine the teaching of the school, to practice the good and discard the bad ones.

It is a place for the application and further preparation of the facts taught at school. The simple relationship between the home the school.


Amajironwu (1979) was of the opinion that since the school and the community relates they should in like manner participate to develop schools, plan and execute infrastructure designs. He outlined some functions that the Parents Teachers Association have to perform:

  1. To build schools on self help project
  2. To co-operate with the school in giving information to the latter
  3. To be receptive to new ideas of welfarism and innovations
  4. To participate actively in the meetings where school activities are to be discussed, planned and executed
  5. To ensure that the programmes of schools are relevant of the community
  6. Promoting the welfare of children and youth in home, school, church and community.
  7. To bring into close relation the home and the school: that parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training of the child.


2.1    The Problems Militating Against the Effective Function of P.T.A.

The Parents Teachers Association are formed in order to generate good relationship between parents and teachers for the welfare of the school in general. However, there is a big problem affecting some schools, which is misappropriates of fund.

Nwagwu (1987 p. 166) observed that the major problem with Parents Teachers Association is alleged misappropriate of fun raised by the members for the executive committee of the Parents Teachers Association


Akinde (1999 6:116) contribute briefly that the role of Parents Teachers Association in the school is one of the factors that can affect learning. This clearly shows that the role of Parents Teachers Association should be supportive, in order for the Parents Teachers Association to plays a supportive role in the school.


There is problem of attendance many parents do no usually attend the meeting as scheduled.

Jenkins et al (1953) states that the “unfortunate teachers can seldom get to know the parents of alt their children. Often the parents whom they will mostly like to know will not often come to school. Some of them are afraid of the teachers, a carry over perhaps from their own schools, others are not sufficiently interested, some are embarrassed to come to school because of inadequate clothing or inarticulate language”.


Ojelabi (1980:205-207) SAYS THAT “MANY PROBLEMS OF Parents Teachers Association gives rise to friction are due to the following consideration”

  1. Teachers dominate discussion with the result that parents tends to regard the teachers as dictators
  2. Many parents look upon the association as an agency for find raising to support schools programme and government efforts.
  3. Language difficulty may suffice where parents decide to use the language of the community instead of English language.
  4. Some “enlightened” parents try to use PTA meeting to interfere with school policy considering the problem it can be, .it can be suggested that school administrators should see that some parents who are genuinely feel concerned about school policies. The parents should also be made so that they could contribute positively to the education of their children.


Teachers should not be afraid of parents, honest questions or their school personal, school willingly takes over school controversial matters and back their policies with factual statements. This will make the inquisitive parents and the school to come to a better understanding of one another.



Research Methodology

3.1   Introduction

This chapter is concerned with the methods of procedures used in this study


The chapter focused on the type of research conducted, selected schools and population sample for the study, construction of questionnaire, administration of research instrument, method of data collection, problems encountered and limitations.


3.2   Types of Research Conducted

It is assumption of this study that the respondent had already possessed certain conceptions of importance of Parents Teachers Association. The research method used in this study surveyed a small population by selecting a group of people to serve as a representative of the entire groups, survey design involved the collection of data to accurately and objectively described an existing phenomena. Survey research also focuses on the people, their facts beliefs, opinions, attitudes, motivation and feelings.

Thus method is versatile and practical in that they identify present conditions and point to present needs.

This survey uncovers, interpret and integrate data; into a application, studies under this design are employed to obtain a picture of the present conditions of particular phenomenon.

The subjects were required to give information about the impact of Parents Teacher Association in educational management. The respondents are expected to tick yes/no, which will be on a rating scale using percentages.


3.3   Procedure for Data Collection

This study employs the following steps:

  1. The selection of secondary schools and the .population sample for the study.
  2. Construction of research instruments.
  • Administration of research instruments.
  1. Method for data collection etc.


3.4 Selected Secondary Schools and Population for the Study

This study is carried out in Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area of Lagos State. The following schools will be used.

  1. Odofin High School Mile II Complex
  2. Imoye High School Mile II Complex
  • Amuwo-Odofin High School Mile II Complex

There are five schools in Mile II complex i.e. secondary schools. A table of random numbers was assigned to each schools and all was in a box which was thoroughly mixed with the aid of a blindfold a friend of mine randomly picked any of the tables of random numbers i.e. the three schools in Mile II complex.


This method is more economical and easily accessible. It is a method that has been validated by Moses (1958) and Rummel (1964).


The principals, teachers, students and parents from each selected schools will be used. Students be selected from each class using about two classes in each of the schools.


A total number of 100 parents, to teachers, 100 students and 3 principals will be interviewed in the study.


3.5 The Construction and Administration of Research Instrument

The major part of the investigation was done through the questionnaires that were designed by the investigator, the questionnaire is divided into two parts.

In the first part (section A), respondents will be asked to give information about their personnel data.


In the second part (section B), respondents will provide information on the involvement of Parents Teachers Association in educational management. The chairman of the P.T.A. of some secondary schools was also interviewed.


The interview was centered on the following the “WHY” behind the inauguration, the number of times of P.T.A. meetings in an academic session, treatment of absenteeism from P.T.A. meetings on the part of the parents.


The questionnaire is the most useful survey instrument. The questionnaire is constructed in simple English for easy understanding.

Questions are made short as possible to avoid confusion.

The questionnaire (data collecting instrument) was divided into four:

  1. Questionnaire for principals
  2. Questionnaire for teachers
  • Questionnaire for parents
  1. Questionnaire for students


3.6 Reliability of the Research Instrument

The instrument used for this research work is reliable and c an be counted on within the context of this study reliability is defined as the extent to which the questionnaire used for collection of information obtained will be dependent on for necessary and useful information.


The questionnaire will help the researcher to get useful information about the personal data of the respondents.


3.7 Validity of Research Instrument

It is found necessary to state this juncture of the efforts made to ensure the validity of the piece of information obtained from the study. Within the context of this study, validity is defined as the extent to which the survey instrument acts as accurate predictor. In essence, validity amounts to the extent in which the questionnaire used for collection of information obtain the information it is expected to obtain.


The questionnaire was tested for content validity, which means the extent to which the question that did not seem to be clear could be explained to give the actual response needed. After writing the items that constitute the questionnaires, a test of context validity is carried out by giving instrument and the research questions were given to as many persons as possible for examination, the necessary corrections based on the suggestions were made. The researcher also ensures that all the questions were with the scope of the respondent’s knowledge. All thee were done to ensure that the research instrument is valid.


3.8 Method of Data Collection

The data was collected by the use of a well-structured questionnaire. The researcher went to each principal she explained the purposes of the study and begs for his/her co-operation.


The co-operation of the responsible reactions was also solicited for from the respondents.


The collection of the data was done by the investigation in person. Under the teacher’s supervision the respondents were made to fill the questionnaire and return them on the spot’. Due to this procedure, the researcher was able to get back all the questionnaires.


The administration condition was the same for the second and third school.


3.9   Problem Encountered

The problem encountered was the failure of large number of the respondents to fill the questionnaire properly. Despite the fact that the research is to be filled and ensured them of utmost confidentially, many students and parents failed to understand. What was expected of them for instance, some people are not well disposed to collecting the questionnaire given various reasons. Among which are unavailability of time to answer the questions hence, out of one hundred (100) copies of questionnaires that were administered to the students, only ninety two were properly, completed.


3.10 Limitation

A wide coverage of more schools in the state could not be undertaken because of the constraints imposed as a result of time, fund and other factors. As a result, the research was limited to schools in Mile III Complex of Amuwo-Odofin Local Government Area. It is however believed that the sampled schools would address the issues involved adequately.